GOL105 Exam 1 Review

GOL105 Exam 1 Review - GOL105 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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GOL105 1/14/08 CHAPTER 1: INTRODUCTION TO EARTH SCIENCE I. What is Earth Science? A. The study of all facets of our planet, its environment, and the processes that take place upon and within it. B. Earth Science is interdisciplinary C. Earth’s energy comes from the Sun, and the heat from Earth’s interior II. Components of Earth Science A. Solid Earth B. Hydrosphere C. Atmosphere D. Biosphere III. History of the Universe A. The Big Bang Theory : i. 12-14 Billion Years Ago ii. Universe is a large expanding cloud of hot gases and dust iii. Galaxies formed by gravitational attraction ~10 BYA, then move apart as the universe continues to expand iv. Clusters of gas coalesce within galaxies and condense to form stars B. Formation of the Solar System i. Dust cloud in a solid nebula collapses into a disk and begins to rotate ii. Local clusters form and grow to become a star and planets iii. Most of the material in the disk ends up in the star iv. Once heat and pressure at the center of the proto-star get high enough, nuclear fusion begins and the resulting solar wind sweeps leftover dust and gas out of the solar system. CHAPTER 2: MINERALS: BUILDING BLOCKS OF ROCKS I. Elements A. Element : fundamental component of matter that cannot be broken down into simpler particles by ordinary chemical means B. Atom : the smallest unit of an element that has all the properties of that element C. Proton : atomic mass = 1, + charge D. Neutron : atomic mass = 1, no charge E. Electron : atomic mass = 0, - charge
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F. Atomic number : # of protons (determines the element) G. Atomic mass : # of protons + # of neutrons H. The atomic mass, the size, and the arrangement of electrons in the outermost shell determines how the element will behave II. Elements in Our Universe A. Most original matters of the universe created by the Big Bang was mainly HYDROGEN and HELIUM (light, simple elements) B. Heavier elements on Earth are from: i. Fusion reaction in the center of giant stars ii. During supernova explosions when stars die C. Supernova explosions create elements heavier than IRON through fusion i. Our solar system is created from matter derived from older stars that exploded ii. Incorporated heavier elements present in interstellar dust iii. Our star burns hydrogen to make helium; NOT BIG ENOUGH to make heavier elements! III. Compounds A. Compounds : combinations of two or more elements B. Elements are more stable bonded together C. Types of compounds : i. IONIC : one gives up an electron (cation), one accepts (anion) ii. COVALENT : share electrons (very strong bond) IV. Minerals A. Minerals are compounds; they form the basic building blocks of the solid Earth B. 4 Characteristics: i. Naturally occurring ii. Inorganic solid iii. Specific chemical composition iv. Definite crystal structure C. Physical properties i. Crystal form, or habit ii. Luster iii. Color iv. Streak v. Hardness (Moh’s Hardness Scale)
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GOL105 Exam 1 Review - GOL105 CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION TO...

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