Constitutional Law - Collins- Spring 2005- Kalamaya

Constitutional Law - Collins- Spring 2005- Kalamaya - Con...

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Con Law Outline Judicial Power A. Marbury v. Madison  (1803, John Marshall) 1. Quotes a) “Any act by Congress which is repugnant to Constitution is void.” (i) Constitution is  written  and evidence that it is superior and binding law. (a) Supremacy Clause of Art. VI. b) “It is emphatically the province and duty of the judicial department to say what the law is” 2. Reasoning for Judicial Review: a) Constitution’s structure:  (i) If courts can’t declare acts of Congress unconstitutional, any act of Congress could  overcome the Constitution (ii) Separation of Powers argument (a) Exec and legislature have restraints b) Marshall knows “original intent” of Framers and their intention to have judicial review 3. Jurisdiction a) Proper Jurisdiction (i) Original jurisdiction – Art. III (a) States v. State (b) Diplomats (ii) On appeal (a) Judicial Act § 25 giving SC jurisdiction over State courts ( Martin , below). b) Limitations (Improper Jurisdiction) (i) Political Question (see below) (ii) Constitution places power to another branch (a) Nixon  – Senate has “sole” power to impeach B. Preemption/Supremacy of Supreme Court 1. Supreme Court Has Jurisdiction Over State Supreme Courts a) Generally (i) Fletcher v. Peck (a) First case where Court invalidated a state law. (ii) Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee (a) Facts : dispute over state property law and conflict with fed treaty.  State court wouldn’t  Ryan Kalamaya – Con Law Outline Professor Collins – Spring 2005
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enforce Supreme’s decision.   b) Reasoning  –  Martin (i) Judicial Act § 25 (a) Validity of Treaty (b) Constitutionality of any state statute (c) Constitutional issue (ii) Supremacy Clause – Art. VI § 2 (a) “Power of fed gov’t emanates from people, not the states.” (iii) Uniformity  (a) State courts need to be subject to SC rulings on federal issues so there’s a uniform  interpretation and application throughout the country. (b) Argument is based on “spirit” of Con, i.e. an implicit argument 2. Enumerated Powers Doctrine (i) Art. I § 8 – Congressional basic enumerated powers (ii) Art. II – Presidential powers and duties (i) Why Broadly ? (a) Fed gets power directly from people, not from the states’ independent sovereignties (b) Constitution is flexible outline for government (i) Marshall: “we must never forget that it is a  constitution  we are expounding.” (c) Original Intent’ : the Framers intended the Feds to have broad enumerated powers, or  else they would’ve written “ absolutely  necessary and power” (d) Textual Structure : “necessary and proper” is within the enumerate powers, not a  limitation on those powers.
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