celluar division - BY 1116 Biological Sciences I Dr Kathryn...

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BY 1116 Biological Sciences I Dr. Kathryn Ponnock Week 5 – Mitosis and Meiosis I. Introduction A. All cells are formed by the division of Preexisting Cells B. Cell division enables organisms to Grow, Repair, or Reproduce C. Cells’ DNA is organized as Organism’s GENOME 1. Genes are used to control activities of cells and are passed on to descendents D. Process of Mitosis is to faithfully replicate and divide DNA to each daughter cell 1. Procedure to divide the NUCLEUS (Nuclear Division) 2. Occurs in Somatic cells (majority of cells in body, excluding sex cells) 3. Followed by Cytokinesis E. Process of Meiosis is a Reduction Division where chromosome number is reduced by ½ 1. Also a Nuclear Division 2. Functions only in Sexual Reproduction 3. Precedes formation of Gametes II. Chromosomes A. Major carriers of genetic information B. Found in Cell Nucleus C. Consist of complex of protein and DNA D. Each chromosome contains thousands of Genes that code for proteins E. Every individual of a given species has a characteristic number of chromosomes 1. Humans have 46 chromosomes – grouped in 23 homologous pairs F. When cells are NOT in cell division – DNA and proteins exist as Chromatin 1. Chromatin is wound around a core or 8 proteins called Histones 2. Chromatin looks like Beads on a string with each bead called a Nucleosome 3. Before division, chromatin will condense into Chromosomes 4. Chromosomes are duplicated BEFORE cell enters nuclear division (Mitosis or Meiosis) 5. Duplicated chromosomes stay attached to each other as Sister Chromatids 6.
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