cellular respiration - BY 1116 Biological Sciences I Dr....

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BY 1116 Biological Sciences I Dr. Kathryn Ponnock Week 04 – Cellular Respiration I. Introduction A. Every organism must extract energy from the organic molecules that it either makes by photosynthesis or captures from the environment B. Cells convert the energy obtained from the chemical bonds of nutrients into chemical energy that is stored in ATP. This occurs during Cellular Respiration. C. Process can be Aerobic – requires oxygen – or can be Anaerobic where no oxygen is needed 1. Aerobic respiration is the most efficient 2. Anaerobic events include Anaerobic respiration and Fermentation II. Aerobic Respiration i. Series of Reactions 1. Nutrients are broken down to form CO 2 and H 2 O 2. Most organisms obtain energy from GLUCOSE C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 + 6 H 2 O 6 CO 2 + 12 H 2 O + ATP 3. CO 2 is produced by removal of hydrogen atoms from glucose B. Overview of Four Stages 1. Glycolysis a. Takes place in Cytosol b. 6-Carbon Glucose molecule is transformed into Two, 3- Carbon molecules of Pyruvate c. Other products include ATP and NADH 2. Formation of Acetyl CoA a. Takes place in Matrix of Mitochondria b. Pyruvate enters Mitochondrion and is Oxidized to a 2- Carbon molecule – Acetate c. Acetate combines with Coenzyme A to form Acetyl Coenzyme A d. Process also generates NADH and CO 2 3. Citric Acid Cycle a. Takes place in Matrix of Mitochondria b. Acetyl CoA combines with a 4-Carbon molecule (Oxaloacetate) to form Citrate c. During cycle, Citrate is recycled and CO 2 is released d. Energy is captured in ATP, NADH and FADH 2 4. Electron Transport Chain and Chemiosmosis
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cellular respiration - BY 1116 Biological Sciences I Dr....

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