Chemistry 122:Factors Affecting Acid Strength

Chemistry 122:Factors Affecting Acid Strength - Chemistry...

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Chemistry 121 3/14/2014 Factors Affecting Acid Strength 1. The more polar the H–X bond, the more acidic the compound. A molecule containing H will behave as an acid only if the bond is polarized this way: Hydrides such as NaH, do not react as acids, because H has a negative charge. CH 4 is not an acid because the C-H bond is not polar. 2. The weaker the H–X bond, the more acidic the compound. Bond strength of halides: HF(567kJ/mol)>HCl(431KJ/mol)>HBr(366kJ/mol)>HI(299KJ/mol). HF is the least acidic, HI is the most acidic. 3. The greater the stability of the conjugate base, the stronger the acid. The strength of an acid is often a combination of all three factors. Binary Acids For a series of binary acids H-X (X represents members of the same group), the strength of the H-X bond is the most important factor in determining the acid strength. The strength of the H-X bond decreases down a group.
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For a series of binary acids H-X (X represents members of the same period), the polarity of the H-X bond is the most important factor in determining the acid strength.
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