Chemistry 122:Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria

Chemistry 122:Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria - Chemistry...

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Chemistry 2 3/3/2014 Chapter 16: Acid-Base Equilibria We tend to think of acids as scary liquids found in laboratories and industrial processes. Although this picture is partially true, it is far from complete. We interact with acids on a daily basis. Many foods contain different acids recognizable by a sharp, tangy taste orange juice (citric acid), vinegar (acetic acid). Ketchup and coffee are also acids. Other common household items such as baking soda and soap are bases. Early scientist (17 th century) recognized acids as substance that has a sour taste and reacted with metals such Al and Zn. And bases as substance with a bitter taste and slippery feel (soap). Arrhenius An acid is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydrogen ions H + . HCl(g) H 2 O H + (aq) + Cl - (aq) A base is a substance that, when dissolved in water, increases the concentration of hydroxide ions OH. NaOH(s)  H 2 O Na + (aq) + - OH(aq) Arrhenius definition is useful but has its limitations: 1. the definition is only valid when water is the solvent. 2. They are substances that are bases but do not yield OH in water ( such as NH 3 ). Two chemists Brønsted and Lowry proposed a more general definition: acid-base reactions involve the transfer of H+ ions from one substance to another.
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