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[Solved] Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in ele

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Unformatted text preview: 6/22/2021 [Solved] Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EV... | Course Hero Find study resources 숿 O. P. Jindal Global University / BBA / BBA 12 / Just as there are a variety of technologies Question Answer & Explanation Related Questions Related Courses Question 숤 Answered step-by-step Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EVs) have different capabilities that can accommodate different drivers' needs. A major feature of EVs is that drivers can plug them in to charge from an off-board electric power source. This distinguishes them from hybrid electric vehicles, which supplement an internal combustion engine with battery power but cannot be plugged in. There are two basic types of EVs: all-electric vehicles (AEVs) and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEVs). AEVs include Battery Electric Vehicles (BEVs) and Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEVs). In addition to charging from the electrical grid, both types are charged in part by regenerative braking, which generates electricity from some of the energy normally lost when braking. All-electric vehicles (AEVs) run only on electricity. Most have all-electric ranges of 80 to 100 miles, while a few luxury models have ranges up to 250 miles. When the battery is depleted, it can take from 30 minutes (with fast charging) up to nearly a full day (with Level 1 charging) to recharge it, depending on the type of charger and battery. If this range is not sufficient, a plug-in electric vehicle (PHEV) may be a better choice. PHEVs run on electricity for shorter ranges (6 to 40 miles), then switch over to an internal combustion engine running on gasoline when the battery is depleted. The flexibility of PHEVs allows drivers to use electricity as often as possible while also being able to fuel up with gasoline if needed. Powering the vehicle with electricity from the grid reduces fuel costs, cuts petroleum consumption, and reduces tailpipe emissions compared with conventional vehicles. When driving distances are longer than the all-electric range, PHEVs act like hybrid electric vehicles, consuming less fuel and producing fewer emissions than similar conventional vehicles. Depending on the model, the internal combustion engine may also power the vehicle at other times, such as during rapid acceleration or when using heating or air conditioning. PHEVs could also use hydrogen in a fuel cell, biofuels, or other alternative fuels as a back-up instead of gasoline. The electric vehicle revolution in India is afoot and the charge is being led by two-wheelers and three-wheelers. And while the movement in the passenger vehicle has been rather cautious, there is a shift at play here as well which augers well for the future of electric mobility in India. A recent report published by KPMG and CII has now highlighted the role that state EV policies could also play in promoting EV adoption in the country. Highlighting how state government can provide impetus to sale of EVs as against conventional vehicles with internal combustion engines, the report titled 'Shifting gears: the evolving electric vehicle landscape in India' notes that people at large need to be given reasons to switch to battery power through a number of ways. The report recommends that hiking road tax/registration fees on conventional vehicles, surcharge on parking of such vehicles and de-registering them could sway people towards EVs. It further notes that setting up of charging infrastructure as well as taking out vehicle scrappage policy - currently pending approval from central government stakeholders - could also massively boost EV adoption. "A widespread network of charging stations is vital for ensuring the fast adoption of EVs," states Rohan Rao, Partner - Industrials and Automotive, KPMG in India. Currently, states including Delhi, Gujarat and Telangana have a firm EV policy in place with others expected to follow. The KPMG-CII report emphasizes that such EV policies ought to have set targets for conversions of EVs and underscores how Delhi, Uttarakhand and Tamil Nadu have such targets in place already. The Delhi government in August 2020, had announced its 'Delhi Electric Vehicle Policy' with CM Arvind Kejriwal touting it as the best in India and among the best globally. Under it, his government will waive registration fee and road tax, and provide incentive of up to ₹1.5 lakh for new electric cars in the national capital. There will also be incentives of up to ₹30,000 on electric two-wheelers, autos, e-rickshaws and freight vehicle. The policy also envisages installation of 200 charging stations - one every three kilometres. The move invited positive responses with Society of Manufacturers of Electric Vehicles (SMEV) saying it will provide more push to the existing EV architecture than the current FAME II scheme by the Centre. The central government also is determined in the cause towards electric mobility and wants to speed up supporting infrastructure. News agency PTI recently reported that there is a plan being considered to put charging kiosks at the around 69,000 fuel stations across the country. Under the new guidelines of the oil ministry, new petrol pumps must have an option of one alternative fuel and that most are opting for EV charging points. The same report informed that the country's power ministry has also chalked out a plan to focus on Delhi National Capital Region, Kolkata, Chennai, Hyderabad, Bengaluru, Vadodara and Bhopal for creating EV charging infrastructure in cities as well as on highways to encourage people to switch over to electric mobility. "The minister (R K Singh) is of the view that putting up two or three charging stations in any city would be a waste of funds. Besides, the central government is looking at complete electrification of public transport in Delhi, which can later be followed in other cities," a source was quoted as saying. A complete electrification of public transport could be a big shot in the arm for the EV movement in Delhi and pave the way for other cities to follow. Delhi Transport minister Kailash Gahlot has been in talks with Singh and has said that the Centre has assured that subsidy will be provided for 1,000 electric buses in the city. Industrialists like Anand Mahindra are among many who have already said on record that Delhi 'may become the cradle of India's EV movement. And with more and more manufacturers coming out with EV offerings across different segments and price brackets, the rather audacious aim of having all all-electric cars on Indian roads may well be taking shape from the power lanes of the capital city. 숩 Link copied! 1/10 6/22/2021 [Solved] Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EV... | Course Hero For now, and the foreseeable future though, the EV path, India is on, will most likely be paved by two and three-wheelers. KPMG in India Find study resources expects 25% to 35% electric two-wheeler penetration, and 65% to 75% in electric three-wheelers by 2030 with passenger vehicle 숿 electrification following. "To drive EV adoption, Original Equipment Manufacturers (OEMs) and the government, both at state and central levels, need to work collaboratively towards an Related integrated policy, creatingRelated a conducive ecosystem for India's electric mobility vision," the Question Answer & Explanation Questions Courses report notes. India is the fourth largest auto market in the world and some estimates suggest there are close to 170 active investors in EV startup ecosystem in the country. And while the government targets 30% penetration of EVs in the automobile sales, this is largely expected to be powered by e-two-wheelers and e-three-wheelers, not PVs. A recent report taken out by Data Labs which also relied on data from Niti Aayog, highlighted that the share of electric passenger vehicles in the entire Indian EV ecosystem in 2019 was a mere 0.5% and that by 2030, such electrified passenger vehicles are likely to form 5.8% of all passenger vehicles sold in the country. When compared to present statistics and how and the rate at which EVs are growing in numbers in European countries, the intent seems right even if the pace seems rather slow. Case compiled from various sources[1] Questions: PART I 1. Are Electric vehicles eco-efficient? Justify using case facts. [5 marks] 2. Judge the Electric vehicles policy of Delhi based on concept[s] discussed in class. [5 marks] 3. In reference to the KPMG and CII Report, discuss successful adoption strategy for Electric vehicles. [5 marks] 4. Are Electric vehicles a good option? Answer from the perspective of the policy maker considering any adequate theoretical concept discussed in class. [5 marks] 5. Given the case facts, if you were toying about entering the Electric vehicles industry, you have two choices- either enter the industry or not. Explain your choice based on your learnings from Module 3 and 4. [5 marks] PART II 1. List three hurdles to the spread of electric vehicles in a country like India? (6) 2. Indicate three strategies which the electric vehicle manufacturers can apply to capture greater markets in India. (6) 3. The article states that the government is encouraging the spread of electric vehicles infrastructure in some cities of India. Delhi could be the first city to shift to complete electric vehicle infrastructure. How do you think the consumer behavior towards buying electric vehicles with change with such initiatives? (5) 4. As a businessman planning to build electric vehicles, would you invest in research in electric vehicles technology or would you import the technology from abroad? Answer the same question if instead of a businessman, you were a policymaker who had to make policies for electric vehicle adoption in India. (8) Biology Science Ecology BBA 12 섈 쉋 Comments (1) 쇱 Answer & Explanation Solved by verified expert 숨 Rated 싙 Helpful Part 1. 1. Are Electric vehicles eco-efficient? The fundamental distinction between traditional, thermal vehicles and electric automobiles has to do with the technique of remodeling the capability (stored) electricity into kinetic (movement) electricity. In thermal cars, this strength is saved in a chemical shape and is launched thru a chemical reaction inside the engine. Then again, in spite of additionally having chemically stored electricity, electric-powered cars release it electrochemically without any sort of combustion, thanks to lithium-ion batteries. This means that there may be no gasoline being burned and therefore no air pollutants thru co2 occurring while driving. They are also greater efficient than fossil automobiles. No longer necessarily. Or better said, no longer always. If the supply of strength to electricity these motors don't come from solar panels, wind generators or even nuclear or hydroelectric, their co2 emissions will be lots better. For instance, if the energy used to price motors comes from the burning of fossil fuels, it doesn't matter if the EC is not polluting even as being driven, as this pollution became already released in a few distant energy plants. 숩 Link copied! 2/10 6/22/2021 [Solved] Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EV... | Course Hero This means that in case you're driving an electric powered automobile in the US, where fossil fuels accounted for 62.7% of the US of a's power production in 2017, you'll likely release more co2 into the atmosphere than in case you're driving it in Iceland, which runs nearly숿 Find study resources totally on hydro, geothermal and solar strength. Question Answer & Explanation Related Questions Related Courses The cycle of creating a car begins with uncooked materials being extracted, subtle, transported, and manufactured into several components with a view to be assembled to provide the auto itself. This procedure may be very a great deal the same in each traditional electric-powered car. Nevertheless, on the cease of the producing system, electric vehicles are those producing more carbon emissions, in step with the union of involved scientists. Aside from the burden of the ree, the strength used to supply the batteries themselves is also chargeable for almost 1/2 in their environmental effect on the grounds that most of this energy doesn't come from low carbon resources. Nevertheless, forecasts display that the electricity technology is improving and there are extra renewable sources entering the grid, which would help lower the ecological footprint of building up those batteries. On the other hand, developing renewable electricity systems has its effect as properly, again the use of energy and ree. Ultimately, we need to be affordable about this and despite their initial footprint, the effect of lithium-ion batteries, when in comparison to conventional automobiles, is offset within 6 to sixteen months of average using (using clean strength) in the US or 2 years inside the ECU. From this moment on, EC keeps being a better eco-opportunity to traditional automobiles till their battery receives to the cease of its life cycle. 2. Judge the Electric vehicles policy of Delhi based on concept[s] discussed in class. In line with the coverage, over the subsequent five years, the authorities are in all likelihood to sign up at least five lakh new EVs in Delhi. The EV coverage, in addition, states that -wheelers, shared transport vehicles, and commercial vehicles can be main the transition to electric mobility from traditional gas-based totally mobility. There could be incentives for electric powered-wheelers and three-wheelers together with automobile-rickshaws and e-rickshaws, in addition to 4-wheeler purchases. An incentive of ₹5,000 in step with kWh (kilowatt-hour) of battery ability could be given for 2-wheelers. An incentive of up to Rs. 5,000 will be supplied for the scrapping of a non-electric powered two-wheeler car and switching to an electric vehicle, the record on key highlights says. The policy provides for charging factors at workplaces and home parking. As in step with the ministry of transport, the government of Delhi, the government will offer a one hundred percent subsidy for the acquisition of charging equipment and as much as Rs. 6,000 per charging factor for the first 30,000 charging points at houses/workplaces. The authorities estimate that this EV coverage will keep away from about Rs. 6,000 crores in oil and liquid herbal gas imports and four.8 million tons of co2 (carbon dioxide) emissions, equivalent to avoiding co2 emissions from nearly 1 lakh petrol automobiles over their lifetime. The Delhi authorities may be constituting the country EV board for searching after the implementation of the policy. The investment issue of the challenge will be taken from diverse resources together with pollutants/diesel cess, road tax, surroundings compensation charge (ECC), and others the usage of the 'feebate' concept. Underneath the feebate idea, polluting cars will incur a surcharge (fee) even as efficient ones get hold of a rebate (bate). 3. In reference to the KPMG and CII Report, discuss successful adoption strategy for Electric vehicles. Automobile analysts challenge almost 50 new electric-powered cars will input the marketplace inside the subsequent three version years, with an extra 50-plus evs inside the pipeline. From traditional and new automakers, the ones new fashions will assist boost global EV income from 8 percent to more than 25 percent by using 2025. With more and more stringent emissions and gasoline-economic system standards in many foremost markets, and with nations like the U.K. Banning petrol and diesel motors with the aid of the subsequent decade, the automotive industry is tasked with increasing client acceptance of EVs. Addressing four key areas will improve EV adoption: Variety anxiety Battery and part reliability and fee Charging infrastructure Offering low-threat ways to enjoy EVs. Addressing range tension We've already visible upgrades in the range EVs can journey between battery prices but persevered improvements in the battery era are important to overcoming variety tension. 숩 Link copied! 3/10 6/22/2021 [Solved] Just as there are a variety of technologies available in conventional vehicles, plug-in electric vehicles (also known as electric cars or EV... | Course Hero Posted estimates at the tesla version s suggest up to 370 miles among costs with the next-era tesla roadster boasting a 620-mile functionality. The Chevrolet bolt achieves a number 259 miles and the 2020 Nissan leaf reviews a variety of 226, greater than double숿 the Find study resources variety of its 2017 predecessor. Widespread vehicles co. These days introduced its all-new modular platform and Altium batteries destined for all future models and imparting various 400Related miles. Questions Question Answer & Explanation Related Courses Battery and element's reliability and value How long will an EV battery ultimate and how much will it fee to update it? What else can pass wrong? These are questions from consumers worried about potential excessive out-of-pocket prices for excessive-powered batteries. Manufacturers also are asking equal questions as they remember to guarantee insurance for EVs. We are expecting's a deep view, a pass-enterprise study of predictive car repair frequency, finds normal repairs are lower for EVs at 811 problems in line with 1,000 automobiles (pp1,000) in comparison with their gasoline counterparts (841 pp1,000). But consequences range by way of the model - some higher and others worse than competitors. Deep view projects electric maintenance on EVs will boom over the following couple of years, transferring from 262 pp1,000 for 2016 fashions to 438 pp1,000 for 2019 fashions - more than one hundred upkeep pp1,000 better than for gasoline fashions. Moreover, battery maintenance inside the first three years is projected to rise 70 percent for 2019 and 2020 models compared with 2014 to 2018 models. And for EVs, battery upkeep boom six-fold by means of 12 months 10. To reinforce consumer self-assurance in EVs, manufacturers, suppliers, and repair facilities need to deal with these electric powered- and battery-associated problems - in particular out of doors the guaranteed duration -before they multiply. Having a wider view of field performance will permit producers to cope with regions of their product development and patron care practices. Developing, increasing charging infrastructure With variety increasing, the subsequent impediment for EV adoption is the capability to re-rate. Domestic charging is the most dependable and less expensive alternative. However, depending on the man or woman's go back and forth, recharging at work or alongside the way may be important. Commercial enterprise and public parking plenty are increasingly more offering charging stations. Several extra options are below development, from wi-fi charging alongside the freeways to streetlight charging stations for road-aspect parking. Many automakers, suppliers, and utility corporations understand the significance of growing a strong, dependable infrastructure and have invested in charging the begin-united states and answers. Shortening the time to price, on the side of growing the charging alternatives, will make EVs a more feasible choice. Bridging techniques for EVs A bridging approach to guide EV adoption efforts can ease customers into the right framework to now not most effective receive, however, in the long run, experience their EV experience. Supplying a low-hazard manner to revel in an EV is a top-notch way to expose customers earlier than making the long-term dedication of purchasin...
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