biology notes 2

biology notes 2 - Exam: know 4 tissue types, know about...

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Exam: know 4 tissue types, know about epithelial, know what’s in the connective tissue class Mutations – bad changes Nucleotide substitutions (base pair substitutions) Mis-sense Mutation - 1 nucelotide - Causes 1 amino acid to be changed Ex: DNA – GGACTCCTCTTC RNA – CCUGAGGAGAAG Protein – pro-glu-glu-lys *change 5th base in DNA to A *RNA changes, GAG to GUG *amino acid was glu, now val Nonsense Mutations - 1 nucleotide changes in DNA - That changes 1 nucleotide in RNA - Creates a stop codon where there was a codon for an amino acid Addition/Deletion - Can be 1 nucleotide or several - Results in a Frameshift Mutation Reading frame of codons is changed THE BIG RAT ATE THE PIE Insert an S in the sentences o THE BSI GRA TAT ETH EPI E Multiple amino acids are changed Triplet Expansion - Mutation that results in a n increased number of trinucleotide repeats o 3 nucleotides, repeated over and over within a gene Ex: HUNTINGTON DISEASE
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CAG repeats Normal 6-37 Disease 35-121 Causes of Mutation - Larger genes more likely to mutate - Genes with trinucleotide repeats - CAG Huntington - CGG Fragile X - GC rich genes Radiation- X-rays o Penetrate tissue o High doses kill, lower gives point mutations, breaks chromosomes
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Reimer during the Spring '08 term at St. Francis PA.

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biology notes 2 - Exam: know 4 tissue types, know about...

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