Lecture 1 What is Archaeology Print Version

Lecture 1 What is Archaeology Print Version - Introduction...

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The Science of Our Past Introduction to Archaeology Anthropology 2363 Spring 2008 W hat is Anthropology? Anthropology is the study of humanity from a bio-cultural perspective. Anthropology is holistic in that the discipline is concerned with studying the whole of the human condition: past, present, and future. Anthropology offers a unique cross- cultural perspective by constantly comparing the customs of one society with those of others. What constitutes beauty? W hat do Anthropologists do?
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P eople share both society and culture Society is organized life in groups, a feature that humans share with other animals Cultures are traditions and customs, transmitted through learning, that govern the beliefs and behaviors of the people exposed to them. While culture is not conditioned by genetics, the ability to use it rests in hominid biology Learned: from parents, peers, teachers, leaders, and others. Shared: despite individual values and understandings, human groups share some basic ideas about the world and their place in it. Symbolic: the meaning that cultures give to things and events. Culture is…. C ultural traditions promote certain activities and abilities, discourage others, and set standards of physical well-being and attractiveness. Lets examine this assertion by considering the issue of women in the Olympics
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“Ritza” Coreia Nassim Hassanpour Nawal El-Moutawakel Cristy Halbert H ow do you define yourself? Culture…taken in its wide ethnographic sense is that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other capabilities and habits acquired by “man” as a member of society. Edward Burnett Tylor 1871 Culture is learned, shared, and symbolic…
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Ideational perspectives The research perspective that defines ideas, symbols, and mental structures as driving forces in shaping human behavior. Culture is a complex set of conceptual designs and shared understandings that underlie the way people act Culture is what people think… Anthropologists study culture in two basic ways The Pythia of Delphi Adaptive (materialist) perspectives A research perspective that emphasizes technology, ecology, demography, and economics in the definition of human behavior. Social and cultural differences are viewed as responses to the material parameters of life such as food, shelter, and reproduction. Culture is what people do… Anthropologists study culture in two basic ways Participant observation: The ethnographer becomes a participant in the culture being studied Cross-cultural comparison: Studies and compares multiple cultures and societies Holistic: inclusive of many different kinds of research, linking the biological and cultural and looking for the worldwide perspective Cultural Relativity: judging a culture on its own terms The Unique Traditions of Anthropology
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T he terms primitive and advanced have no meaning in an Anthropological framework… Phoneme: the sound that has meaning to the native speaker. Phonetic analysis:
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course ANTH 2363 taught by Professor Eiselt during the Spring '08 term at Southern Methodist.

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Lecture 1 What is Archaeology Print Version - Introduction...

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