Archaeological ConceptsApplied, engaged, and public anthropology…The applicationof anthropological data, perspectives, theory and techniques to identify, assess, and address contemporary social issuesKinds of ArchaeologyPrehistoric ArchaeologyHistoric ArchaeologyClassical ArchaeologyUnderwater/Maritime ArchaeologyGeoarcheologyEthnoarchaeologyExperimental ArchaeologyPublic Archaeology
Public Archaeology is Applied AnthropologyManaging archaeological sites and other cultural resourcesHistoric preservation planning and lawEducationExpert witness and testimonyForensic archaeologyThe Garbage ProjectStewardshipHenry WrightUniversity of MichiganMuseum of AnthropologyNational Geographic Society archaeological expedition to Iraq.Looters not only steal objects, they destroy sites, along with valuable evidence that can never be replaced….Looting and antiquity trafficking is illegal
Archaeological Site and Data DestructionHuman AgentsNatural AgentsGeomorphic ProcessesSoil Property ChangesFauna/FloraFreezing/ThawingCatastrophic EventsFireIncidental Actions(Disregard)Land DevelopmentAgriculture/Land ClearingLand ReclamationFlood ControlWater DevelopmentRecreationRoads/Public UtilitiesMiningIndustrialInstitutionalized(Mitigation)Archaeological Survey and ExcavationAgency ManagementIntentional ActionsPredatory(Personal Gain)Hobby CollectingCuriosityMarkingCommercialMalicious(Often Political)RevengeFrustration/OppressionWanton – No motiveOnce the information has been removed from the ground, whether through archaeological excavation or as a result of looting, development, erosion, or other processes, the site itself is gone.Forever…When archaeological investigations are conducted, the information from the ground is transformed into archaeological datathat are used to interpret and explain thearchaeological recordWhat does that mean?First Principles: Archaeological sites and associated materials are non-renewable resources…Relevant observationsmade on objects that then serve as the basis for study and discussion (e.g. measurements)Data = pluralDatum = singularData Set = singularObjects are not dataArchaeological DataAll artifacts tell a story…
The Archaeological RecordThe documentation of artifacts and other material remains, along with their contexts recovered from archaeological sites.
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