Lecture 3 The Structure of American Archaeology -...

Lecture 3 The Structure of American Archaeology
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Archaeological Concepts A pplied, engaged, and public anthropology… The application of anthropological data, perspectives, theory and techniques to identify, assess, and address contemporary social issues Kinds of Archaeology Prehistoric Archaeology Historic Archaeology Classical Archaeology Underwater/Maritime Archaeology Geoarcheology Ethnoarchaeology Experimental Archaeology Public Archaeology
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Public Archaeology is Applied Anthropology M anaging archaeological sites and other cultural resources H istoric preservation planning and law E ducation E xpert witness and testimony F orensic archaeology T he Garbage Project S tewardship Henry Wright University of Michigan Museum of Anthropology National Geographic Society archaeological expedition to Iraq. Looters not only steal objects, they destroy sites, along with valuable evidence that can never be replaced…. Looting and antiquity trafficking is illegal
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Archaeological Site and Data Destruction Human Agents Natural Agents Geomorphic Processes Soil Property Changes Fauna/Flora Freezing/Thawing Catastrophic Events Fire Incidental Actions (Disregard) Land Development Agriculture/Land Clearing Land Reclamation Flood Control Water Development Recreation Roads/Public Utilities Mining Industrial Institutionalized (Mitigation) Archaeological Survey and Excavation Agency Management Intentional Actions Predatory (Personal Gain) Hobby Collecting Curiosity Marking Commercial Malicious (Often Political) Revenge Frustration/Oppression Wanton – No motive Once the information has been removed from the ground, whether through archaeological excavation or as a result of looting, development, erosion, or other processes, the site itself is gone. Forever When archaeological investigations are conducted, the information from the ground is transformed into archaeological data that are used to interpret and explain the archaeological record What does that mean? First Principles: Archaeological sites and associated materials are non-renewable resources… Relevant observations made on objects that then serve as the basis for study and discussion (e.g. measurements) Data = plural Datum = singular Data Set = singular Objects are not data Archaeological Data All artifacts tell a story…
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The Archaeological Record The documentation of artifacts and other material remains, along with their contexts recovered from archaeological sites.
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