Chapter 14 Biology Review

Chapter 14 Biology Review - Chapter 14: DNA, the Genetic...

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Chapter 14: DNA, the Genetic Material Describe the structure of DNA o 5 carbon sugar o Phosphate group o Nitrogenous bases o The double helix (turning to the right) What bases are present? o Adenine o Guanine o Cytosine o Thymine What is the structure of a nucleotide? o made up of sugar, phostphate group, and a heterocyclic base List three differences between DNA and RNA o DNA Sugar= deoxyribose ATCG bases Double stranded o RNA Sugar= ribose (one more –OH group than deoxyribose) ACG and Uracil (not Thymine) Single stranded
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What is a sugar phosphate backbone? o major structural component of the DNA molecule . The back bone is constructed from alternating ribose sugar and phosphate molecule s which are highly polar . Because the back bone is polar , it is hydrophillic which mean s that it likes to be immersed in water Where are the bases? o They are on the inside of the helix structure What is the difference between a purine and a pyrimidine? o Purine 2 nitrogenous rings Cytosine and Guanine o Pyrimidine 1 nitrogenous ring Adenine and Thymine (Uracil in RNA) What are the base pairing rules? o A to T (2 hydrogen bonds) and C to G (3 hydrogen bonds) What contributions did the following individuals make to science? o Rosalind Franklin- X-Ray crystallographs and found DNA had a double helix structure o James Watson- discovered the nucleotide base pairs/worked with Crick and received Nobel Prize for double helix (with Franklin’s work) o Francis Crick- 1958, Crick’s thinking had matured and he could list in an orderly way
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course BIOL 111 taught by Professor Reimer during the Spring '08 term at St. Francis PA.

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Chapter 14 Biology Review - Chapter 14: DNA, the Genetic...

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