Chapter 15 Biology Review

Chapter 15 Biology Review - Chapter 15 Genes and how they...

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Chapter 15: Genes and how they work What is the central dogma of molecular biology? o information passes in one direction from the gene (DNA) to an RNA copy of the gene (transcription) and the RNA copy directs the sequential assembly of a chain of amino acids into a protein (translation) DNA RNA protein Why is the central dogma of molecular biology incomplete? o It doesn’t include retroviruses who can convert their RNA genome in a DNA copy What is the difference between replication, transcription, and translation? o Replication: copy of DNA to DNA o Transcription: in the nucleus: production of RNA with nitrogenous bases that are complementary to one of the DNA strands o Translation: in polyribosomes and the rough endoplasmatic reticulum both located in the cytoplasm: translation from RNA codes to specific chains of aminoacids, i.e. polypeptide, the precursors of proteins What is a codon? An anticodon? o Codon: tri- nucleotide sequences that encode different amino acids o Anticodon: three nucleotides that correspond to the three bases of the codon on the mRNA Ex: one codon for lysine is AAA; the anticodon of a lysine tRNA might be UUU What is a promoter? o Promoter: regulatory region of DNA located upstream (towards the 3' region of the anti-sense strand ) of a gene , providing a control point for regulated gene transcription
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