Outline Week 8 Spring 2014 - Anth 1500 lecture outline Week...

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Anth 1500 lecture outline Week 8 Harappa and Mohenjo-daro Mehrgarh Lies in NW South Asia; Aceramic Neolithic site with important evidence regarding early  agriculture ( 9000 – 7500 BP ca. 7000–5500 BCE) in the Indus Valley) Evidence for goat pastoralism  Through time, cattle became the predominant animal herded Importance of cattle (particularly in terms of ideology) persisted until today Major crops include: barley, wheat, chickpea, pea, mustard, sesame Indus Civilization:   Spans the Indus Valley in Pakistan Lasted ca. 2500–1900 BCE. Harappa  (excellent images and descriptions of site) Charles Masson, deserter from British army, identified site in 1826  Square seals later found Excavations began in 1920 by Rai Bahadur Daya Ram Sahni (Rai Bhadur DRS) under  direction of Sir John Marshall (Director General of Archaoelogical Survey in India) 1921: Marshall announced discovery of a “new” civilization Current work co-directed by Richard Meadow (Harvard University) Many structures made with hi-temperature furnace-baked bricks Site plan, artifact types, and industries are fairly uniform across the Indus Town planning with streets, high mound (often called a “citadel” although did not serve  as a defensive structure) Important industries include ceramic manufacture, bead-making (shell), etc. Mohenjo-daro:  Mound of the Dead, first recorded in 1911 Major parts of site (found at Harappa too): Granary : No grain preserved in granary area, so it may have served another function.  Food stores would have been important in maintaining the city. Similar granary was  unearthed in Harppa – supporting the former hypothesis. Public Bath : Large “swimming pool” with changing rooms and drainage. Lined with  bitumen. May represent an area for communal/ritual cleaning Water works : Houses were equipped with baths and drains to dispose of household refuse and toilets with channels to remove human waste. Semi centralized water supply system.  Centralized sewage removal system – predates western world by over 4000 years.
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