Philosophical Frameworksand Cultural IssuesMODULE 2
1. Highlight the philosophical framework of IT laws.2. Describe the different social and cultural issues in IT.
Social Issues on DigitalDivide, Equity andAccessPART 1
Overview•TheDigital Divide, or thedigital split, is a social issue referringto the differing amount of information between those whohave access to the Internet (specially broadband access) andthose who do not have access.•The term became popular among concerned parties, such asscholars, policy makers, and advocacy groups, in the late1990s.
Dimensions of the Divide•Broadly speaking, the difference is not necessarilydetermined by the access to the Internet, but byaccess to ICT (Information and CommunicationsTechnologies) and to Media that the differentsegments of society can use.
Dimensions of the Divide•With regards to the Internet, the access is only one aspect,other factors such as the quality of connection and relatedservices should be considered.•Today the most discussed issue is the availability of theaccess at an affordable cost and quality.
Dimensions of the Divide•The problem is often discussed in an international context,indicating certain countries are far more equipped thanother developing countries to exploit the benefits from therapidly expanding Internet.
Dimensions of the Divide•The digital divide is not indeed a clear single gap whichdivides a society into two groups. Researchers report thatdisadvantage can take such forms aslower-performancecomputers,lower-quality or high price connections(i.e.narrowband or dialup connection), difficulty of obtainingtechnical assistance, and lower access to subscription-basedcontents.
Bridging the Gap•The idea that some information and communicationtechnologies are vital to quality civic life is not new.•Some suggest that the Internet and other ICTs are somehowtransforming society, improving our mutual understanding,eliminating power differentials, realizing a truly free anddemocratic world society, and other benefits.
Bridging the Gap•In many countries, access to the telephone system isconsidered such a vital element that governmentsimplement various policies to offer affordable telephoneservice. Unfortunately some countries lack sufficienttelephone lines.
Bridging the Gap•Literacyis arguably another such element, although it is notrelated to any new technologies or latest technologicaldevices. It is a very widely shared view in many societies thatbeing literate is essential to one's career, to self-guidedlearning, to political participation, and to Internet usage.
Bridging the GapThere are a variety of arguments regarding why closing the digitaldivide is important. The major arguments are the following:1. Economic equality2. Social mobility3. Democracy4. Economic growth
Economic equality•Some think that the access to the Internet is a basiccomponent of civil life that some developed countries aim to