Chapter 10 - Ch. 10 Intro. To Organic Chemistry: The...

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Unformatted text preview: Ch. 10 Intro. To Organic Chemistry: The Saturated Hydrocarbons Organic means different things in different contexts! Organic fertilizer is that derived from living organisms. Organic foods are generally those grown without synthetic pesticides or fertilizers. Organic Chemistry Chemistry of carbon-containing compounds. Organic was coined in 1807 by the Swedish chemist Jons Jakob Berzelius. I t was originally thought that all organic compounds could only be synthesized by living organisms, while compounds obtained from nonliving systems, such as from rocks and ores mined, the oceans, or the atmosphere, were labeled inorganic. This way of classifying organic vs. inorganic began to change when F riedrich Wohler, a German physician, synthesized the organic molecule urea (produced in the liver from protein breakdown, transported to the kidneys, excreted in the urine) from two inorganic substances, potassium cyanate and ammonium sulfate. The Chemistry of Carbon So, if C is in the formula, is the compound always an organic one? No, as usual, there are exceptions! Compounds like carbonates, carbides, cyanides, cyanates, CO, CO 2 , are considered inorganic. Of ~20 million known chemical compounds known at present (a new chemical is listed every 9 sec), ~95% are organic compounds. Why so many? Carbon differs from other elements in several ways. I t can form stable, covalent bonds with each other (p. 305, graphite, diamond, buckminsterfullerene). I t can form stable bonds with other elements (like O, N, S, the halogens, etc.). Carbon can form single, double, and triple bonds in these cases. Also, the number of ways that carbon and the other atoms are ar ranged are almost limitless. The parts of our human body, I.e, hair, skin, brain, internal organs, blood, etc., are primarily composed of organic compounds. That is why you must have a good understanding of organic chemistry! Comparison of Organic and Inorganic Compounds (Examine Table 10.1, bottom of p. 306) Melting/Boiling Points: Organics low, I norganics high Bonding present: Organics covalent, I norganics ionic This explains the observation about melting/boiling points. Covalent bonds are weaker, held together by partial charges, versus ionic bonds being stronger, held together by full charge attractions. Solubility in water: Organics insoluble, Inorganics soluble Solubility in nonpolar organic solvents (e.g., hexane, ether, carbon tetarchloride): Organics soluble, I norganics - insoluble Flammability: Organics flammable, I norganics nonflammable. Conductivity in solution: Organics nonconductive, I norganics conductive (in aqueous solution and in liquid or molten state) Families of Organic Compounds Organic compounds are classified in various ways. The most general division is between hydrocarbons (a compound with just C and H) and substituted hydrocarbons (1 or more H atoms replaced by another atom or...
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Chapter 10 - Ch. 10 Intro. To Organic Chemistry: The...

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