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# L13 - CS61C Machine Structures Lecture 13 MIPS Instruction...

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CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (1) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB 9/26/2007 John Wawrzynek (www.cs.berkeley.edu/~johnw) www-inst.eecs.berkeley.edu/~cs61c/ CS61C – Machine Structures Lecture 13 - MIPS Instruction Representation I CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (2) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB 61C Levels of Representation (abstractions) High Level Language Program (e.g., C) Assembly Language Program (e.g.,MIPS) Machine Language Program (MIPS) Hardware Architecture Description (e.g., block diagrams) Compiler Assembler Machine Interpretation temp = v[k]; v[k] = v[k+1]; v[k+1] = temp; lw \$t0, 0(\$2) lw \$t1, 4(\$2) sw \$t1, 0(\$2) sw \$t0, 4(\$2) 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1100 0110 1010 1111 0101 1000 0000 1001 0101 1000 0000 1001 1100 0110 1010 1111 Logic Circuit Description (Circuit Schematic Diagrams) Architecture Implementation Register File ALU

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CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (3) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB Overview – Instruction Representation ° Big idea: “stored program computer” consequences of stored program ° Instructions as numbers ° Instruction encoding ° MIPS instruction format for add instruction (and it s friends) ° MIPS instruction format for Immediate, Data transfer instructions CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (4) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB
CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (5) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB Big Idea: Stored-Program Concept Computers built on 2 key principles: 1) Instructions are represented as bit patterns (can think of these as numbers). 2) Entire programs are stored in memory and can be read or written just like data. ° Simplifies SW/HW of computer systems: Memory technology for data also used for programs Programs can be used to manipulate other programs! (or self?) CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (6) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB Consequence #n: Everything Addressed ° Since all instructions and data are stored in memory, everything has a memory address: instructions, data words both branches and jumps use these ° One register keeps address of instruction being executed: “Program Counter ( PC ) Basically a hardware pointer to memory: Intel calls it Instruction Address Pointer, a better name

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CS 61C L13 MIPS Instruction Representation I (7) Wawrzynek Fall 2007 © UCB Consequence #n+1: Binary Compatibility ° Programs are distributed in binary form Programs bound to specific instruction set Different version for Macintoshes (PowerPC) and PCs (x86) , etc. ° New machines want to run old programs (“binaries”) as well as programs compiled to new instructions ° Leads to “backward compatible” instruction set evolving over time ° Selection of Intel 8086 in 1981 for 1st IBM PC is major reason latest PCs still use
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L13 - CS61C Machine Structures Lecture 13 MIPS Instruction...

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