Chapter 1 biology.docx - Chapter 1.intro to the human body...

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Chapter 1.intro to the human bodyAnatomy and Physiology– Two complementary branches of scienceAnatomy– Studies structure of body's structures and their relationships to one another (anatomy (a Greek root - to cutapart))Physiology- is the scientific study of the chemistry and physics of the structures of the body and the ways in which theywork together to support the functions of life.- Much of the study of physiology centers on the body’s tendency toward homeostasis.Form is closely related to function in all living things; remember structure definesfunctionANATOMYGross anatomyis the study of the larger structures of the body, those visible without the aid of magnificationMacroscopic anatomy- (Macro- means “large”) thus, gross anatomy is also referred to as macroscopic anatomy.Microscopic anatomy(micro- means “small”) and is the study of structures that can be observed only with the use of amicroscope or other magnification devicesCytology- Microscopic anatomy includes cytology, the study of cells and histology, the study of tissues. - Microscopicanatomy includes cytology, the study of cells and histology, the study of tissues.*Anatomists take two general approaches to the study of the body’s structures: regional and systemic.Regional anatomyis the study of the interrelationships of all of the structures in a specific body region, such as theabdomen.- Studying regional anatomy helps us appreciate the interrelationships of bodystructuresSystemic anatomyis the study of the structures that make up a discrete body system-that is, a group of structures that work together to perform a unique body function.Surface anatomylooks at internal structures as they relate to overlying skin (visible muscle masses or veins seen onsurface)STRUCTURAL ORGANIZATIONHuman body is very organized, from the smallest chemical level to whole organism level:Chemical level: subatomic particles, atoms, molecules,and organellesCellular level: cellsTissue level: groups of similar cellsOrgan level: contains two or more types of tissuesOrgan system level: organs that work closely togetherOrganismal level: all organ systems combined to makethe whole organismBiosphere - our earth
Major Organ Systems- There are 11 organ systems that work together to maintain lifeIntegumentary systemSkeletal systemMuscular systemNervous systemEndocrine systemCardiovascular systemRespiratory systemDigestive systemImmune system/Lymphatic systemExcretory systemReproductive systemCharacteristics of living organismsThe organ systems each have different functions and therefore unique roles to perform in physiology.The characteristics of living organisms includeorganization,metabolism,responsiveness,movement,ReproductionDevelopmentCharacteristics of life – OrganizationA human body consists of trillions of cells organized in a way that maintains distinct internal compartmentsThese compartmentsCompartmentskeep body cells separated from external environmental

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Term
Fall
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Tags
Anatomy, Human Anatomy, Anatomical terms of location, Peritoneal cavity

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