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2. Class Introduction and Nuclear_Instrumentation.ppt -...

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Nuclear InstrumentationHP Laboratory CourseME 361FME 390N1
DeliverablesExam (30%)Lab Reports (70%)2
Deliverables – Minor LabReportsAll lab reports should be compiled in Excel/WordEverything should be in thereDiagrams of experiment setupDataComputer generated graphsAnswers to all questions.Neatness counts on your grade!!!!3
ALARAIn addition to complying with regulations,another purpose of training is to maintainradiation exposure levels to workers…AsLowAsReasonablyAchievable
Three cornerstones of ALARA are:Time– the less time spent around aradioactive source or area, the less radiationdose you will receive.Distance– increasing one’s distance froma source also lessens the dose received.Shielding– putting shielding betweenyou and a radioactive source will lessen thedose received.
Radiation BasicsUnderstanding the basic science of nuclear radiation isessential to maintaining a safe working environment.Types of Ionizing RadiationRadiation UnitsSources of Radiation ExposureDefinitions
Types of Ionizing RadiationAlpha (α)Identical to a doubly charged helium nucleusPositively charged particle that isspontaneously ejected from the nuclei ofsome radioactive elementsLow penetration (cannot penetrate skin –internal hazard)Found in soil, radon, and heavy radioactiveelements
Types of Ionizing Radiation(continued)Beta (β)Negatively charged beta particle is identical to anelectronCharged particle emitted from a nucleus duringradioactive decayMass equal to 1/1837 mass of the protonSome penetrating power (stopped by 1cm plastic)Skin, eye, and internal hazardFound in food, water, and air
Types of Ionizing Radiation(continued)Gamma rays (γ)High energy, short wavelengthelectromagnetic radiation emitted from thenucleusHigh penetrationExternal hazardNaturally occurring in soil and as cosmicradiationMany medical uses
Types of Ionizing Radiation(continued)X-raysElectromagnetic radiation (photon) having awavelength much shorter than that of visiblelightProduced by excitation of the electron field ofan atomHigh penetrationExternal hazardMany medical uses
Types of Ionizing Radiation(continued)Neutron (n)Uncharged particle found in the nucleus of everyatom heavier than hydrogenMass slightly greater than that of a protonHigh penetrationCan change stable nuclei to unstable isotopesExternal hazardNeutron sources at NETL:Pu(Be), Am(Be)
Radiation UnitsBecquerel (Bq)– SI unit of measurement ofradioactivity equal to one disintegration persecondCurie (Ci)– Common unit of measurement ofradioactivity equal to 3.7 x 1010disintegrationper second (equivalent to the rate of decay ofone gram of Radium)
Radiation Units(continued)Gray (Gy)- SI unit of absorbed dose; equalto an absorbed dose of one Joule/kilogramRad (Radiation Absorbed Dose)– Commonunit for absorbed dose; equal to an absorbeddose of 100 ergs/gram(100 rad = 1 Gy)
Radiation Units(continued)Rem

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Term
Summer
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Radioactive Decay, Ionizing radiation

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