Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis

Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis - C H A P T E R 10...

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141 C H A P T E R 10 GLYCOLYSIS AND GLUCONEOGENESIS Glycolysis Function Glycolysis Location Glycolysis Connections Glycolysis Regulation Glycolysis ATP Yields Glycolysis Equations Effect of Arsenate Lactate or Pyruvate Gluconeogenesis Function Gluconeogenesis Location Gluconeogenesis Connections Gluconeogenesis Regulation Gluconeogenesis ATP Costs Gluconeogenesis Equations (See Fig. 10-1.)
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142 Basic Concepts in Biochemistry GLYCOGEN ADP ATP hexokinase GLUCOSE HMP Pathway G6P glucose-6-phosphatase ATP ADP F6P F-1,6-P phosphofructokinase (PFK) fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase NADH NAD+ Pi G3P 1,3-DPG ADP ATP 3PGA 2PGA glyceraldehyde-3 phosphate dehydrogenase DHAP LACTATE NAD+ NADH PEP ADP ATP PYRUVATE lactate dehydrogenase Pi 2 pyruvate carboxylase CO 2 ATP ADP + Pi OAA NADH MITOCHONDRIA NAD+ MALATE MALATE NAD+ NADH OAA GTP GDP + Pi CO 2 PEP carboxykinase pyruvate kinase Figure 10-1 GLYCOLYSIS (solid lines) and GLUCONEOGENESIS (dotted lines) share some common enzymes, but they diverge around the control steps. Major con- trol enzymes are boxed. Signals that turn glycolysis on turn gluconeogenesis off, and vice versa.
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10 Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis 143 GLYCOLYSIS REGULATION Primary signals: Insulin turns on . Glucagon turns off . Epinephrine turns on in muscle , off in liver . Phosphorylation turns off in liver , on in muscle . Secondary signals: Glucose signals activate (fructose 2,6-bis- phosphate activates phosphofructokinase). Low-glucose signals inhibit.
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Glycolysis and Gluconeogenesis - C H A P T E R 10...

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