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L14-AuditorySystem - Auditory System The Traveling Sound...

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Auditory System The Traveling Sound Wave o Sound waves are alternate patterns of compressed (positive pressure) and rarefied (negative pressure) medium at a particular frequency o Normal human sensitivity range (freq) = 20-20,000 Hz o Amplitude affects Loudness; Frequency affects pitch; complexity affects timbre Anatomy of the Ear o Pinna: external part of the ear designed to funnel sound into ear canal o Tympanic membrane: pressure from sound hits this membrane at the end of the ear canal; attached to the Ossicles o Ossicles: 3 bones of the middle ear bones (Malleus, Incus, and Stapes) o Stapes is located in area called the Cochlea and covered by Oval Window o When stapes moves, oval window compresses fluid into cochlea; round window allows for liquid to leave that is being compressed o o Eustachian tube: anatomical feature that connects with throat; keeps the air equalized between both sides of the tympanic membrane Cochlear Anatomy o Signals that come out of the cochlea travel out through the 8 th cranial nerve (auditory nerve): carries information from the cochlea and the semi- circular canals (necessary for balance, uprightness, position in space) o 8 th cranial nerve contains info about balance and about hearing o
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