Study Guide Test 2

Study Guide Test 2 - Cis double bonds more stable than...

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Chapter 5 Dehydration of alcohols to produce alkenes (elimination) -E1 for secondary and tertiary alcohols -E2 for primary (carbocation too high in energy to be intermediate) -water also is reactant in slow step to pull off H+ Regioselective: Zaitsef’s Rule Stereoselective: Steric effects and Van der Waals strain; preference for trans Substitution of a Halide for –OH of alcohol -requires nucleophilic ions to attach to carbocation -non-nucleophilic ions will result in forming of alkene Carbocations can rearrange to form more stable species -primary to secondary by shifting a hydrogen with electrons (hydride; H-) -a carbon group can also do this to form a higher substituted carbocation Dehydrohalogenation to form alkenes -strong base removes halogen ion to form carbocation. Nearby hydrogen cation leaves to form HX and electrons from C-H bond go to double bond. -polar solvent also required One step mechanism -hydrogen and bromine are anti, more stable product formed, strong base required
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Unformatted text preview: Cis double bonds more stable than trans when ring is smaller than 11-membered Question 5.33 Chapter 6 Addition reactions-E+ added to C with most hydrogens and X- to C with least-Addition of Radicals Alkene + water and H+ alcohol Alkene + HCl alkane with Cl H2SO4 and H3PO4 are weaker nucleophiles than H2O Reactions forming dihalides-alkene + Cl2 + polar solvent trans alkane Reactions of halides and H2O to form halohydrins-alkene + Br2 + water alcohol with Br group-Br adds first-H2O takes opposite side (trans) because Br takes up so much space Hydroboration – Oxidation-2 step addition anti-markovnikov-BH3 (electrophile)-alkene + BH3 + peroxide and OH- alcohol Epoxides -3 membered rings in a chain containing 2 C and 1 O Isomers-Constitutional: Functional / Positional-Stereoisomers: conformational / Geometric-Optical Isomers Markovnikov and Zaitsef’s rule all aim to form the more stable intermediate to predict trans and cis addition products...
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Study Guide Test 2 - Cis double bonds more stable than...

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