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L02-NervousSystem - Organization of the Nervous System...

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1/23/07 Organization of the Nervous System Divisions of the Nervous System o Central Nervous System: Brain and spinal cord; interneurones o Peripheral Nervous System: Everything else, sensory and motor neurons; divided into somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system Somatic Nervous System: Voluntary neurons; input from sense organs and output to skeletal muscles Autonomic Nervous System: Involuntary nerves; internal receptors and output to smooth muscles (heart) and glands; divided into two systems Sympathetic Motor System: “Fight or flight” responses; Chief neurotransmitter: noradrenaline; “Adrenergic System” Parasympathetic Motor System: Relaxing responses; Chief neurotransmitter: acetylcholine; “Cholinergic System” Cells of the Nervous System o Neurons Each person has 100 billion to a trillion neurons in each person Many specialized types “Principal” neuron: cell responsible for excitatory transmission from one part of the brain to another part of the brain; “output” neurons from a part of the brain Interneuron: Go between other neurons; role: modulate firing of principle neurons Receptors: responsible for translating information from the physical world into your nervous system o Glia: many different types of those cells o Other kinds of cells eg Endofilial cells that line the blood vessels Neuron structure o Soma: aka cell body o Dendrites: the branches from the somata; shape gives clue to their function o Axon: Takes information and transports it to other cells o Terminals (“boutons”) o Neurons are highly specialized for their function
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