ReceptorKinetics

ReceptorKinetics - BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics...

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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 1 BME 210 Biomedical Computer Simulation Methods Receptor Kinetics I Introduction II. Receptor Ligand Kinetics A. Chemical Rate Laws B. One Binding Site – One Conformational State C. One Binding Site – Two Conformational States D. Enzyme Kinetics III. Numerical Solution of a Single Differential Equation – The Problem IV. Euler’s Method V. Runge-Kutta Method of Order 2 VI. Fourth-Order Runge-Kutta Forumula (RK4) VII. Implicit Euler’s Method VIII. More Examples with Matlab Implementation IX. More Than One Differential Equation A. The Problem B. Converting One nth Order ODE to n 1 st Order ODEs C. Euler's Method for n Differential Equations D. RK2 for n Differential Equations E. Example with Matlab Implementation X. Matlab’s ODE Solvers A. Overview of ODE45 B. Example – 1 st Order ODE with Sinusoidal Forcing C. Example – Frictionless Pendulum D. Example – Hepatitis C Viral Dynamics XI. Analysis of Errors A. Local Error B. Error Tolerance
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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 2 C. Estimating Local errors D. Illustrations Study Problems Study Problem Solutions
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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 3 Receptor Kinetics I. Introduction The essential first step in almost all biological processes involves interaction of separate molecules. The larger of the two molecules is generally referred to as the receptor while the smaller is referred to as the ligand . The interaction of a ligand and receptor mediates processes in the body as diverse as photo transduction in the retina, to the immune response to an invading virus, to transport of ions across the cell membrane, to the regulatory action of insulin on glucose transport. Receptor-ligand interactions are also central to cellular signaling. The following figure (taken from Essential Cell Biology , by Alberts et al .) illustrates that extracellular signaling molecules (ligands) can bind to receptors on the surface of a cell (A-upper panel) or to intracellular receptors (B-lower panel).
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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 4 The following figure (Alberts et al .) depicts the intracellular signaling cascade illustrating the types of cellular functions that can be altered by the ligand. The signaling cascade performs several essential functions including: transferring the signal from the point were it is received to its locus of action; transforming the signal into a molecule capable of stimulating a response; amplifying the received signal by producing many more messenger molecules than original signal molecules; distributing the signal so that it can act at more than one intracellular target site; allowing for control of the signaling pathways by other molecules.
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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 5 The figure below (Alberts et al .) shows in more detail the actions of a ligand (in this case the hormone Cortisol which is a steroid) that crosses the lipophyllic cell member and binds to an intracellular receptor.
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BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics 6
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ReceptorKinetics - BME 210 Spring 2008 Receptor Kinetics...

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