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FACULTY BACHELOR OF NURSINGJANUARY/2021NBHS1304PATHOPHYSIOLOGYMATRICULATION NO:920908065560001IDENTITY CARD NO.:920908065560TELEPHONE NO.:010-4619837E-MAIL:[email protected]LEARNING CENTRE:OPEN UNIVERSITY MALAYSIAIPOH BRANCH
CONTENTS1.0INTRODUCTION2.0PATHOPHYSIOLOGY DISRUPTIONS IN MUSCULOSKELETALFUNCTIONS3.0 PHYSIOLOGIC AND PHYSICAL CONSEQUENCES OF THEEVENT (OSTEOPOROSIS)3.1CLINICAL MANIFESTATIONS OF OSTEOPOROSIS3.2DIAGNOSTIC CRITERIA OF OSTEOPOROSIS3.3IMMEDIATE TREATMENT AND PREVENTION OFOSTEOPOROSIS4.0CONCLUSIONREFERENCE1
1.0 INTRODUCTIONMusculoskeletal conditions comprise more than 150 diagnoses that affect theloco motor system, that is, muscles, bones, joints, and associated tissues such astendons and ligaments. These conditions include fractures, sprains, and strains, tolifelong conditions associated with ongoing pain and disability (World HealthOrganization, 2019). In addition, age is the greatest risk factor for the major chronicmusculoskeletal disorders, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, and age-related loss of skeletalmuscle mass and function (sarcopenia). To explain the causes of these age-relateddisorders and find ways to avoid or treat them, dramatic developments in knowledgeof the fundamental processes underlying the ageing process are being exploited. Themusculoskeletal system also plays an important role in life, providing structuralsupport to the body, protection, and allowing a range of fine to complex movement fordaily living to elite sporting events.Injuries to the musculoskeletal system occur at various times, resulting invarying levels of impact on the person both acutely and chronically. There is aspectrum of complexity in orthopaedics injuries, with some as simple as commonmuscle strains that, while bothersome, have no impact on life-long functional ability,and others that can result in long-term disability. However, based on the scientificevidence in published literature about precipitation of musculoskeletal injuries in theworkplace, four theories have been proposed to explain these afflictions. Theassumption that all occupational musculoskeletal injuries are biomechanical in natureis central to all theories. Mechanical order disruption in a biological system isdetermined by the individual components and their mechanical properties. Thesecommon denominators will be influenced by the individual's genetic endowment,morphological characteristics, and psychosocial makeup, among other things. Thisphenomenon is explained by the Multivariate Interaction Theory.Differential Fatigue Theory takes into account unbalanced and asymmetricoccupational activities that cause differential fatigue and, as a result, a kinetic andkinematic imbalance that leads to injury precipitation. It is also suggested that whilethese theories may explain the immediate mechanism of precipitation of injuries, theyall operate simultaneously and interact to modulate injuries to varying degrees in2
different cases. Now. the main topic we going to analyze is osteoporosis and how it

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Term
Fall
Professor
professor_unknown
Tags
postmenopausal osteoporosis

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