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problems with epi studies + measurements

problems with epi studies + measurements - at risk over...

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Problems with studies… Intervention: may not follow prescribed behavior  Cohort: sometimes hard to isolate which factors are responsible for health differences Case-control: control group may not be exactly comparable. Errors in reporting or recall. Differential drop-outs create bias: trying to measure AIDS in urban environments, but people  without AIDS tend to move out of the city  Random variation … definition of parameters… confounding variables… selection bias  Ethical issues with epidemiological studies… Nazi experiments on humans  Tuskegee syphilis study  INFORMED CONSENT + INSTITUTIONAL REVIEW BOARDS IMPORTANCE OF CLINICAL TRIALS Epidemiological study measurements  Incidence (rate): # new cases / time period 
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Unformatted text preview: -------------------------------- # at risk over time period Prevalence: # with disease ----------------- # at risk INTERVENTION STUDY MEASUREMENTS Subjects (exposed) Negative outcome: diseased. Dead. Progressed. Positive outcome: no disease. Not dead. Cured. Controls (not exposed) Negative outcome: diseased. Dead. Progressed. Positive outcome: no disease. Not dead. Cured. COHORT STUDY MEASUREMENTS Exposed ____ diseased |______ not diseased Unexposed ____ diseased |_______ not diseased CASE CONTROL STUDY MEASUREMENTS Diseased ____ exposed |______ not exposed Not diseased ____ exposed |_______ not exposed...
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