Criminal Law- Spring 2005- Kalamaya

Criminal Law- Spring 2005- Kalamaya - Criminal Law Outline...

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Criminal Law Outline Punishment A. Retribution 1. Pure – “Just Deserts” (Kant) a) Generally (i) Focus is on what’s fair and just, not on deterrence or social utility. (ii) “Eye for an eye” (iii) Backward thinking (looking back on action, instead of forward like deterrence) (iv) Society has a moral obligation to punish people for acting criminally b) Reasoning (i) It’s only reasonable for people to pay for breaking the rules that keep them safe. (a) “You pay to play.” B. Utilitarian 1. Bentham: you do greatest good for greatest number. 2. Deterrence a) Generally (i) Forward thinking b/c everyone runs through costs-benefits (even if subconsciously) (ii) Pure Deterrence (a) Focus on impacting people’s decisions (to be or not to be a criminal: that’s the  question) with no consideration for making the criminal a better person. (iii) Reasoning (a) People obey law b/c they don’t want to be  (i) ostracized by society,  (ii) they’re moral beings who want to do the right thing, and  (iii) they don’t want to be imprisoned. (iv) Example (a) Jackson (bank robber gets life sentence case) – Judge Posner says deterrence  is best rationale for sentencing b/c all others have significant criticisms. b) Specific Deterrence     (i) Criticism – marginalized person (homeless, poor, etc.) will not be deterred by social  stigma or other reasons b/c they don’t have much to lose. c) General Deterrence    
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(i) Preventing potential criminals lurking in society. (ii) Don’t want to depreciate/cheapen seriousness of crime. (iii) Examples (a) Dudley  – cannibal sailor case.  Won’t happen again to individual sailors, but  concerned about message to future sailors in same situation. (b) Bergman  – rabbi defrauds US gov’t and gets punished even though he’ll never  do it again b/c of message to society. 3. Incapacitation a) For (i) A thug in prison can’t shoot your sister (ii) Less expensive for society to incapacitate than to have them out committing crimes. (iii) Expresses society’s moral outrage (iv) Punishes criminals (retribution) b) Against (i) Leads to judgment of whether criminal will act again (a) Discrimination/stereotyping (b) Incorrect diagnosis by med experts (ii) Retribution: “same crime should mean same punishment.” (iii) Unfair to punish for crimes not yet committed (iv) Overbreadth – uncool to incapacitate someone like a drug offender who is arguably  only hurting themselves. A. Hybrid/Mixed 1. Retribution + deterrence/utilitarian C.
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