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BIOLOGY FINALS REVIEWERLESSON ONEOreochromis niloticusnile tilapiacell cyclesequential phases of eventswherein the parent cell divides& replicates DNA to produce 2daughter cellswhy do cells have to undergocell cycle processes?growthcell differentiationrepair & healing of damagedtissuesreplication of genetic materialsreproduction of speciescell cycle phases1.interphasegap 1 (G1)synthesis (S)gap 2 (G2)2.mitosisprophasemetaphaseanaphasetelophase3.cytokinesisparts of the cell cycleinterphasea.gap 1 (G1)duplication of all organellesb.synthesis (S)replication of DNAnucleus becomes largerDNA amount doublesc.gap 2 (G2)production of enzymesfurther growthfinal preparation for mitosismitosisa.prophasecondensation of DNA tochromosomescytoskeleton disassemblesspindle begins to formb.metaphasealignment of sisterchromatids in themetaphase plateoprometaphasenuclear envelope breaksdownc.anaphaseseparation of chromosomesdisintegration of thecentromered.telophasepresence of cleavage furrowconstricting belt of actinfilamentschromosomes decondensenuclear envelope reformscytokinesisseparation of the celltwo daughter cells areproducedformation of cell plate (plants)centrioleplays an important role in thecell cyclereleases the spindle fibersspindle apparatusspindle fibersbridge of microtubulescentromereholds sister chromatidsmade of protein (peptidebond)kinetochoreattaches chromosomes tospindle fibersreplicaexact copy of the originalmitosisonly in somatic/body cellsmetaphase platemiddle where thechromosomes will alignimportance of checkpointsmakes sure that the process isoccurring accuratelycorrect/possibly inhibit a cellfrom dividing, if not occurringaccuratelycheckpointsG1/S checkpointprimary pointchecks if all organelles areproperly duplicatedG2/M checkpointallows cells who havesuccessfully completedinterphase to begin mitosisspindle checkpointensures all chromosomes areattached to a spindle fiber inpreparation for anaphasecontributory factors in cellcycle regulationgrowth factorssize of a cellnutritional state of cellLESSON TWOOryx leucoryxarabian oryxPithecophaga jefferyiphilippine eagle“chromosomes must be correctlysorted & distributed to creategenetically unique cells with halfthe number of chromosomes asthe original cell”gonadsovary, testesgametesovum (ova), sperm cellmeiosistwo-round set of cell divisionoccurs only in eukaryotic cellswith gametesresult:reduction ofchromosome number into halfhaploid cells are producedfrom diploid cells
kinds of chromosomesx chromosome (female)y chromosome (male)meiosis I1)prophase Ipresence of synapsis andformation of homologouspairs or tetrads (bivalent)concludes with thefragmentation of nuclearenvelope2)metaphase Itetrads randomly align alongthe metaphase plateoprometaphase I

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Term
Summer
Professor
NoProfessor
Tags
Cell Cycle, Mitosis, synthesis

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