Chapter 10 Focus Questions

Chapter 10 Focus Questions - Chapter 10 Focus Questions...

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Chapter 10 Focus Questions 1. What is some evidence concerning the usefulness of analogies in scientific reasonsing? Darwin used it to find selective breeding, Kepler used it for theory of role of gravity, neuroscientists made understanding the brain to computers, biologists use it in finding out new things, and example of teaching college students about electrical circuits and those who relate it to piping thought of adding more batteries and tunnels as adding a resisitor. 2. How are analogies useful in judicial and political reasoning? What distinguishes a useful analogy from a misleading one? An example of evidence as a rope or chain and the rope is better one. People are good at generating analogies to defend political viewpoints. Canadian debts and compare it to cancer growing, they are important in conversation, can mislead or clarify. Useful if the structural relationships between one event and another are related but one makes the answer of the other clearer. 3. How do the Miller Analogy Test and Raven’s Progressive Matrices test assess a person’s ability to perceive analogies? Miller is like normal analogies in our SAT’s. Raven is visual patterns and how the rule for completing first two will apply to third one. 4. What is inductive reasoning and why is it also called hypothesis construction? Why is reasoning by analogy inductive? It is to infer something new based on obs or facts that serve as clues and called hypothesis because the inferred thing is at best an educated guess. It is inductive because the evidence from which one induces a conclusion is a set of past experiences that are in some way similar to one another or to the experience that one is trying to explain. 5. What kinds of false inferences are likely to result from the availability bias? The thinking that a letter in the first letter is more words than in the 3 rd because 1 st is easily thought of, and of which causes more people to die, they overestimate the ones that have been emphasized in the media lately. 6. What are two different ways by which researchers have demonstrated the confirmation bias? Wason showed it by showing people numbers and asking them to formulate a rule and then give examples back to experimenter and they would say yes or no if person’s sequence was same as theirs. Most people for 2 4 6 said it was going up by 2 so gave examples of 4 6 8 and 12 14 16 and got yes’s so they thought they were confident in their rule when actual rule was to go up by any number when they should have
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This note was uploaded on 04/09/2008 for the course PSYC 101 taught by Professor Nosek during the Fall '07 term at UVA.

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Chapter 10 Focus Questions - Chapter 10 Focus Questions...

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