Criminal Law - Pizzi 2006 - Mazzuca

Criminal Law - Pizzi 2006 - Mazzuca - I Procedural aspects...

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I. Procedural aspects of criminal trials A. Proof beyond a reasonable doubt is needed for all elements B. Presumption of innocence-Owens v. State-Drunk man in his truck. We cannot assume he  drove drunk. C. Right to trial by jury 1. Jury nullification II. Principles of Punishment A. In general 1. Why is punishment warranted? 2. What are the necessary conditions for criminal liability and punishment in particular  cases? 3. What form and severity and punishment are appropriate for particular offenses and  offenders? B. Utilitarian justifications People v. Superior Court (Du)-Korean grocer 1. Punishment is used to increase happiness of community and to exclude a greater evil. 2. Forward looking-will punish when it will deter others, when it will help reform and  rehabilitate 3. Proportionality-In order to deter crime, punishment must not be less than is required  to outweigh the potential profit to the criminal of committing the offense. Cannot be  more than what is necessary. 8 th  Amendment prohibits grossly disproportional non- capital sentences. C. Retributivist justifications: The Queen v. Dudley and Stevens-cannibalism 1. Punishment is used for just deserts 2. Backward looking-those who committed a crime owe a debt to society and must pay. 3. Proportionality-Punishment is in proportion to the debt owed by the criminal to  society (a mode of repayment) 4. Assaultive vs. Protective Retribution a. Assaultive: criminals are noxious insects to be ground under the heel of society.  b. Protective: we have a right to punish criminals and criminals have a right to be  punished. 5. Positive vs. Negative Retributivism a. Positive: punish at least as much as deserved. It’s okay to over-punish. b. Negative: punish no more than deserved. III. Modern Role of Criminal Statutes A. Common law may be used to fill gaps in the penal code. May be used to interpret current  statutes. Keeler v. Superior Court-is an unborn fetus a human being? B. Criminal statutes should be understandable to reasonable law-abiding persons. C. Criminal statutes should be drafted as not to delegate policy issues to policy officers,  judges and juries. D. When a statute is ambiguous, it should be interpreted in a manner most favorable to the    (principle of lenity)
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E. Principle of legality-nulla poena sine lege: no crime without pre-existent law. 14 th  Amendment prohibits this through Due Process Clause Commonwealth v. Mochan-lude  phone calls, F. Statutory Clarity-Avoiding undue discretion in law enforcement. In re Banks-peeping  Tom statute.
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  • Fall '06
  • Pizzi
  • Law

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