Chapter 4 Focus Questions

Chapter 4 Focus Questions - Chapter 4 Focus Questions 1...

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Chapter 4 Focus Questions 1. What is a reflex and how can it change through habitation? A reflex is a simple, automatic, stimulus  response sequence mediated by nervous system. When something is done several times to you in the stimulus,  then the magnitude of your response decreases.  2. How did Pavlov discover the conditioned reflex? Digestive reflexes in dogs have different saliva response  to different meat. Dogs that had seen stuff before food started to salivate when seeing the stuff and no food.  3. After the initial discovery, how did Pavlov systematize the process of conditioning, and what names did he give to  the relevant stimuli and responses? Pavlov deliberately controlled the signals before the food came  out. The conditioned reflex was what the unique conditions that gave rise to the automatic response. Stimulus in  conditioned reflex is conditioned stimulus, learned response is conditioned response, the unconditional reflex is  what originally happened, unconditioned stimulus is what was the stimulus, and unconditioned response is what  response. 4. How can a conditioned reflex be extinguished? What evidence led Pavlov to conclude that extinction does not  return the animal to its original, untrained state? Extinction is when you do the conditioned stimulus so  many times without having the unconditioned stimulus appear that the person learns not to believe it. But the  conditioned response doesn’t totally go away, it can be brought back with one conditioned stimulus followed by  unconditioned stimulus or passing of time. 5. How can generalization in classical conditioning be abolished through discrimination training? How can  discrimination training be used to assess an animal’s sensory capacities? Generalization is when  a stimulus that resembles the conditioned one is showed and produces the same conditioned response. It can be  gone by showing the right conditioned stimulus followed by food as opposed to the wrong stimulus and no food. A  dog cannot tell you what he can hear so you can condition it to hear something and that means it can sense it but  if you do one stimulus and another and second doesn’t work, then it can sense the difference between the two. 6. How have researchers shown that the meaning of a stimulus, not just its physical characteristics, can provide a  basis for generalization in classical conditioning? Like they conditioned people to the words good to  salivate and bad to not salivate, and then when they showed good statements in opinion of the person, they  salivated.
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