physiology chapter 17 endocrinology

physiology chapter 17 endocrinology - Chapter 18 Principles...

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Chapter 18 Principles of Endocrinology The Central Endocrine Glands (please note: lecture and this PowerPoint will also cover Chapter 4, pp. 113-124) You will NOT be responsible for Chapter 17
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Hormones Endocrinology Study of homeostatic activities accomplished by hormones Hormones Long-range messengers Secreted into blood by ________ glands in response to appropriate signal Exert effect on target cells some distance away from release site Major glands of the endocrine system Hypothalamus Pituitary Thyroid Adrenal Parathyroid Gonads: Ovaries & Testes Central endocrine glands: in or closely associated with the brain Peripheral endocrine glands: located outside of the brain. Next chapter...
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Hormone Production, Secretion and Action Definitions Hormone : chemical released by cells into the blood which affects ______ cells (_______ glands) anatomically distant, having receptors specific for the hormone __________ gland : a structure which synthesizes and secretes hormones into the blood (Exocrine gland?) ________ hormone : hormone released by a gland (such as the anterior pituitary gland) that stimulates release of another hormone which will act on target cells
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Hormones Two distinct groups of hormones based on their solubility properties __________ (“water loving”) hormones 2 groups Peptides (short protein): insulin Catecholamines: epinephrine, norepinephrine _____ lipid solubility (highly soluble in H2O) __________ (“fat loving”) hormones 2 groups Thyroid hormone Steroid hormones ______ lipid solubility (poorly soluble in water) Cholesterol precursor testosterone estradiol epinephrine thyroid hormone insulin
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Mechanisms of hormone action: overview Water-soluble hormones (peptides, catecholamines) High molecular weight Cannot diffuse across the cell membrane (why not?) , therefore need to bind to membrane receptors to initiate cell activities via second messenger system (such as cAMP) Lipid-soluble hormones (steroids, thyroxine) Easily diffuse across the cell membrane (why?) and bind to specific receptor inside the cell comparison of actions hydrophilic (epinephrine) and lipophilic (steroid and thyroxine) hormones
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Quiz yourself!
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Question 1 As osmolarity of the chyme in the duodenum decreases, gastric motility will ______________.
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Question 2 The hormone ___________ is secreted by cells lining the duodenum (in the duodenal mucosa) in response to low pH.
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Question 3 The type of motility of smooth muscle in the gut tube wall represented by the animation below is called __________.
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Question 4 Define “tropic hormone”.
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Question 5 What is the name of the cell in the stomach which produces pepsinogen?
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  • Fall '14
  • clark
  • Thyroid-stimulating hormone

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