m There will be even more refugees if the conflict in Syria between the

# M there will be even more refugees if the conflict in

This preview shows page 58 - 63 out of 282 pages.

m)There will be even more refugees if the conflict in Syria between the government and the rebel groups expands into other areas of the country. And the conflict will expand into other areas. So either there will be more refugees or we will all have ice cream for dessert.
© Lyle Crawford [ 59 ] ~ 3 ~ -LOGIC WITH UNIVERSAL GENERALIZATIONS-i.-UNIVERSAL GENERALIZATIONS-The ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle (384322 BCE) invented the first kind of logic. We will learn a simplified version of this logic, which constructs valid syllogisms using universal generalizations. A universal generalizationrelates one category(type; kind) of thing to another category of thing. There may be lots of things, or just one, or none at all, in each category. “Universal”means that the statement gives a rule that allows not even one exception (case where it is false). We’ll look at universal generalizations constructed with the quantifiers“all”, “only”, or “no”.Every universal generalization can be written in this form: [Quantifier]A’sareB’s. A and B are plural nouns (things we can count).Statement 3.3: Alldisasters areearthquakes. Statement 3.4: Onlyprofessional athletes arecelebrities. Statement 3.5: Nofilms arecomedies.Not every universal generalization is written in this form, but every one canbe written in this form. Writing generalizations in this form will be necessary for doing logic with them. To write them this way correctly, we need to pay close attention to the structure of sentences.
© Lyle Crawford [ 60 ] Subject and PredicateEvery sentence has two parts: subject and predicate. The subjectis what the sentence is about. The predicateis what the sentence says aboutthe subject; it begins with the verb. Subject Predicate Sentence 3.6: Bob runs.Subject Predicate Sentence 3.7: Bob and Abby run from the zombies and don’t look back. In a generalization, the subject of the sentence gives the quantifier and the first category; the predicate gives the second category. Subject Predicate Sentence 3.8: Only birds fly.
© Lyle Crawford [ 61 ] “Fly” is a verb, not a plural noun. But we can easily turn it into a plural noun. Statement 3.8:Only birds fly. =Only birds areflying things.“Flying things” is a plural noun; we can count flying things. The method for writing a generalization in this form is: 1) find the predicate, 2) turn the predicate into a plural noun. Predicate Statement 3.9: All smartphones have an operating system (OS). Allsmartphones arethings with an OS.Predicate Statement 3.10: Only planets with water support life. Onlyplanets with water areplaces that support life.Universal generalizations can be written with the quantifier as part of the predicate. It is simple to re-write them in the form we need.
© Lyle Crawford [ 62 ] Predicate Statement 3.11: Amazon sells everything you’d ever want. = Allthings you’d ever want arethings sold by Amazon.

#### You've reached the end of your free preview.

Want to read all 282 pages?