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contained 281 words and out of those words Taylor finished reading 265 words and made 18errors. This created a score of 247 out of 281. The errors I observed Taylor making were omittingwords and mispronounced words. On one occasion Taylor skipped an entire sentence. Gathering
5observations from each of the three assessments I was able to make some instructionalinstructions based on those observations.Reading assessments help the teacher to understand the strengths and needs of thestudent (Afflerbach, 2011 p.1). Each time I assessed Taylor I gained more knowledge of thestudent that would help me to understand why she was struggling in the area of comprehension. Iwas able to determine that her struggles with reading were not linked to being unmotivated buther issues were solely connected to issues with vocabulary. Taylor had a difficult time decodingwords that were unfamiliar to her and when she was faced with those challenges would skipthose words altogether. This provides a problem because many times one or two missed wordscan misconstrue the entire meaning of a text being read. Omitting words form select text havethe ability to create problems with comprehension. Another aspect that is not related to acognitive area was that she struggles to see when reading. During the reading inventory Taylorexplained that she often dislikes reading because it hurts her eyes. I made a note of that and whenadministering the One Minute Reading Test she skipped an entire line of the passage that mayhave something to do with her inability to see. I mentioned this to her mother as a way topossibly help some of her struggles with reading. I am also implementing a vocabularyintervention that will help Taylor in that area.Identifying Developmental Stages of WritingGood writing involves more than just documenting ideas, the writing process requires thewriter to think about the process, all while planning what to say (Graham, 2019). Many students lack interest in the area of writing because they are unfamiliar with the wring process (Tompkins,2010, p.52). There are many stages to writing and it essentially begins as early as the age of threeand four. The stages of writing are pre-literate, emergent, transitional, and fluent. Taylor’s
6developmental stage of writing is fluent because she is able to write using the writing traits such as: conventions, organization, voice, ideas, and sentence fluency. Most students who are in grades fourth through sixth are in the fluent stage and working to master the writing process. Taylor’s mother was able to provide me with several pieces of her writing from the Lucy CalkinsUnits of Writing. I was able to observe three of Taylor’s pre and post writing pieces for her narrative, informational, and opinion pieces. I will be using Taylor’s informational essay to observe and critique in order to determine her writing weaknesses (Appendix A).