- If you look at packages it contains a warning: contains phenylalanine. People who suffer PKU (genetic condition) cannot metabolize it and it can accumulate in brain and cause problems. o That's why needs to come with a warning label. Sweetened with NutraSweet. Company bought aspartame, and gave it the name of NutraSweet (brand name of aspartame as produced by Monsanto). - One issues associated with it is that it is not heat stable, can be used in diet drink, etc. But cannot be used in items that is heated up. (cakes, etc). - Aspartic Acid-Phenylalanine-Methyl Ester all linked together. - When it breaks down under heat, methanol is released and no linkage between compounds so sweetness disappears. Great deal of controversy because of the release of methanol. - Methanol is toxic, is it toxic in the amount one would be exposed to from the breakdown of aspartame of body? - Lethal dose is 20000-70000 mg . From diet-soda, it is 20 mg . - Methanol is naturally present in many food, fruit juices (apple and grape juice) and even tomato juice.
TOMAZOS WINTER 2020 CHEM 181 17 - The amount of methanol that is released from soft drinks is negligible. - Does aspartame cause problem in brain damage or allergy? o Some evidences that it can cause headaches, dizziness, fatigue and mood changes. But no certain evidence that can cause this in humans. o Breakdown of aspartame to phenylalanine can give rise to a number of brain chemicals such as ▪ Phenylethylamine ▪ Tyrosine which further breaks down to catecholamine’s o People who are heavy drinkers of these diet drinks, some of this anecdotal affect happens because of the release of these brain chemicals. Video 7 - Epidemiological Studies do not suggest that Aspartame does NOT say it is linked with Parkinson, multiple sclerosis or cancer. - Aspartame is said to be linked in increase with brain tumors. Parallel in increase in aspartame and brain tumors. But if you increase it further on, brain tumors did not increase it leveled off. - Once again association does not mean causation! - Many studies were carried out with aspartame...most studied of all additives present in food. - ADI (Acceptable Daily Intake) for Aspartame is 40mg/kg (50 mg in USA). - How is this ADI (acceptable daily intake) determined? Based on animal studies. - On animal studies one determines NOAEL, at 4000mg/kg there is no observed adverse effect. To determine what is acceptable on a human scale, it is brought down by a factor of 100. So 4000/100 = 40 40 mg. - How does this ADI (average compare to average daily intake? 5mg/kg (8 times less than ADI). - A70kg man would have to drink 20 cans a day to reach the ADI and 1600 cans a day to reach the NOAEL. - Ramazzini Institute o Some people have released studies that aspartame can cause cancer o In 2005 Ramazzini, 1800 rats were fed aspartame over their life time...and female rats show a statistically significant increase in ly mphomas and leukemia’s when fed doses close to human consumption. (doses fed to rat were close to human consumption).
- Spring '11
- Silent Spring, Food coloring, Sucralose, E number, Food additive