Stronger imfs more resistance to flow greater

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Stronger IMFs more resistance to flow greater viscosity Cohesive forces within liquid create internal friction, reducing rate of flow Surface tension: energy required to break through surface or disrupt liquid drop and spread material out as film Stronger IMFs greater ST more curved droplet Capillary action : cohesive + adhesive forces Cohesive force: IMFs between identical molecules Adhesive forces: IMFs between 2 diff molecules Adhesive > cohesive – meniscus concave, liquid further up capillary tubes Cohesive > adhesive – meniscus domed, liquid lower in capillary tubes
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10.3: Phase Transitions Liquid-Vapor equilibrium: Vaporization : liquid gas o In open container, vaporization continues until all liquid converted to gas o In closed container, vaporization countered by condensation o Factors affecting vaporization: Decrease IMFs (lower KE to overcome IMFs, increase VP) increase rate Increase SA (more liquid molec. At surface) increase rate Increase temp. increase rate o Liquids that vaporize quickly/easily = volatile Condensation : gas liquid When rate of vaporization = rate of condensation , dynamic equilibrium established o Liquid level in container does not change after equilibrium is established Enthalpy of vaporization: o ∆Hvap = Hvapor – Hliquid = -∆Hcondensation o As molecules escape liquid , pressure they exert increases after equilibrium, vaporization = condensation, so pressure by vapor over liquid = constant vapor pressure vapor pressure : pressure of vapor in equilibrium with liquid o independent of volume of container (as long as both liquid and gas present) o higher temp, higher VP o Stronger IMFs, lower VP o Boiling : liquid’s VP = external (atm) pressure Normal boiling point : temp. of liquid when vapor pressure = 1 atm/760 torr/101.3 kPa o Clausius-Clapeyron Equation (VP at any temp.) R = 0.08205 L atm/mol K R = 8.3145 J/mol K T = K Melting and freezing
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Heat (enthalpy) of fusion: amt. of energy required to melt 1 mole solid /overcome enough IMFs to convert solid liquid Heat (enthalpy) of vaporization: amt. of energy required to vaporize 1 mole liquid / overcome enough IMFs to convert liquid gas Heating curves o Relationship of temperature and heat input of system heated over time o Temp. does not change during phase change bc added heat is being used exclusively to overcome attractive forces that hold more condensed phase together A.) q = m x Cice x ∆T B.) q = n x ∆Hfus C.) q = m x Cwater x ∆T D.) q = n x ∆Hvap E.) q = m x Catom x ∆T 10.4: Phase Diagrams
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slope of melting curve = negative for H2O 10.5: Solid State of Matter – Types of Solids Amorphous (particles close but don’t have crystal lattice – more random) v. crystalline solids (all particles in crystal cells/lattice Molecular: nonmetal + nonmetal There are covalent bonds present in molecules but IMFs joining molecules Metallic: metals Sea of delocalized electrons good conduction Ionic: metal (or cation) + nonmetal (or anion) Covalent network: graphite, diamond, quartz, silicon, etc.
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