o Missing data o Inconsistent data o See fig 9 14 Reporting applications o RFM

O missing data o inconsistent data o see fig 9 14

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o Missing data o Inconsistent data o See fig. 9-14 Reporting applications o RFM OLAP § Recent, Frequent, Money § How recently a customer has ordered, how frequently a customer places an order, and how much money a customer has spent Data mining applications o Discovering patterns in existing data used for classification and predictions Supervised and unsupervised data mining. o Supervised: data scientists build a data model and form a hypothesis o Unsupervised: no model is built, hypothesis formed after results Big data applications. o NoSQL (MapReduct, Hadoop, Mongo) BI server o A web server application that is purpose built for publishing of business intelligence. KM, CMS and Expert systems. o Knowledge management o Content Management Systems o Ways of documenting and making knowledge available Chapter 10 Understand the security threat/loss scenario o Threat: An entity that seeks to gain access to unauthorized systems o Vulnerability: An opportunity for threats to gain access o Safeguard: A measure that organizations take to block unauthorized access o Target: The system/asset that is desired by the threat o See fig 10-1 Sources of threats o Human error o Computer Crime o Natural events and disasters Types of security losses o Unauthorized data disclosure § Phishing, Spoofing, Sniffing, Wardrivers
§ Hacking: breaking into systems o Incorrect data modification § Data corruption o Faulty service § Incorrect system operation § Usurpation: replacing legitimate programs with malicious ones o Denial of service § DoS § DDoS o Loss of infrastructure § Disgruntled ex-employee walks away with laptop § APT: advanced persistent threat Goal of IS security o To find the appropriate tradeoff between risk of loss and cost of implementing safeguards How should you respond to security threats? How should organizations respond to security threats? o Take security seriously o Intrusion detection systems logs when other systems are attempting to access the system o Create and use strong passwords o Establish company-wide security policies o Manage risk: risk cannot be eliminated; proactively manage the tradeoff between risk and cost o Create an inventory of the data and hardware you want to protect o See fig 10-7 Technical safeguards o Identification/Authentication § Username/password § Biometrics o Encryption § Transforming clear text into unintelligible text o Firewalls § Perimeter § Internal § Packet-filtering o Malware protection § Viruses: replicates itself, but caused by human interaction § Worms: self-propagate, do not require human interaction § Trojan horses: viruses that look like legitimate programs or files
SQL injection o Occurs when a user enters a SQL statement into a form where a SQL statement is not expected

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