Recovered Memory: one that was encoded and stored, though not retrieved for a long period of time. Later is retrieved after some event is brought to consciousness. Memory Construction: aspect of both retrieval and forgetting/retention. During retention or retrieval, information is filtered and missing pieces are filled in. Suggests that retrieved memories are not integrated units, but rather reconstructions with some of the pieces being incorrect. Misinformation Effect: misleading information incorporated into memory of an event.Elizabeth Loftus: research of memory for accidents. Subjects would view a film of an accident in which two cars hit each other. Later, they were asked how fast the car was going, some people were asked “how fast?”, and others were asked “how fast were they when they SMASHED into each other?”. The actual accidentis the top picture, while the reconstruction of memory is in the bottom when asked when they smashed. LTM STORAGEThere is much interest in the underlying physiological basis of memory.Karl Lashley (1950): where is the engram? Rats learn a maze, then you lesion the cortex, and test the memory. There are often little effects when there are large lesions. Memory is distributed across the brain, not localized in a specific area. Some stress hormones (e.g. corticotropin releasing factor) boost learning and retention. E.g. strong emotions can make for stronger memories.Role of the Hippocampus: neural center in the limbic system that helps processexplicit memories for storage. Accidentally or surgical destruction of this area can result in poor LTM (e.g. Korsakoff’s disease).Cortex: different types of long-term memory are stored in different places in the brain. Procedural memories are in “older” brain regions like the striatum (“incentive learning”, things that will be beneficial in the future). Parkinson’s disease (inability to translate internal motivation into action). Visual information tends to be stored in the occipital lobes, hearing in the temporal lobes, and touch in theparietal lobes.AMNESIAAmnesia patients provide researchers with information about where certain types of memories are processed or stored. Findings suggest different brain regions for different types of encoding and retrieval. May be permanent or temporary. Anterograde Amnesia: inability to form memories for events that occur after brain damage. Fail to make new long term memories. Recall experiences for 10 minutes or less.Retrograde Amnesia: inability to remember events that occurred prior to brain damage. Might involve only the incident that preceded it, or years of memories.Alzheimer’s Disease: usually strikes people over the age of 60. Progressive memory loss, ending with complete memory loss. Sufferers tend to have transience and absent-mindedness. Causes are uncertain, but most research points to the abnormal accumulation of a protein called beta-amyloid, which is thought to be toxic to certain populations of neurons that contain the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. These neurons send their axon terminals to memory regions such as the hippocampus and cortex.