2. Assimilation Rejected 1. Most Native Americans resisted attempts to assimilate them into white society and maintained ancestral values and religious beliefs. 2. Attempts by moderate chiefs to combine traditional animalistic rituals with Christian teachings resulted in divisions among Native Americans. 3. Most Native American men also resisted efforts to turn them into farmers, women insisted that they keep politically influential gender roles within Indian society. B. Migration and the Changing Farm Economy 1. Southern Migrants 1. 1790s, two major migration patterns developed in the southern states. 2. Cumberland Gap were white tenant farmers and yeomen families fleeing the depleted soils and planter elite of the Chesapeake region. 3. Kentucky and Tennessee believed they had a customary right to occupy “waste vacant lands,” the Virginia government allowed them to purchase up to 1,400 acres of land at reduced prices but sold or granted estates of 20,000 to 200,000 acres to wealthy individuals and partnerships. 4. Landlessness and opposition to slavery inspired many of these
Marbury v. Madison (1803) What was the Louisiana Purchase? What land did Jefferson buy? Louisiana Purchase What were the Secessionist schemes? migrants to move across the Ohio River. Landownership, however, remained an elusive goal as more than half of Ohio’s white male population did not own land in 1810. 5. Second stream of migrants, dominated by slave-owning planters and their enslaved workers, moved along the coastal plain of the Gulf of Mexico into the future states of Alabama, Mississippi, and Louisiana. 6. Cotton financed the rapid settlement of this region as well as the expansion of slavery into the Old Southwest, as technological breakthroughs increased the demand for raw wool and cotton. 2. Exodus from New England 1. Seeking land for their children, a third stream of migrants flowed out of the overcrowded communities of New England into New York, Ohio, and Indiana. 2. New York, speculators snapped up much of the best land and attracted tenants to work it by offering farms rent-free for seven years, after which they charged rents. 1. Many New England yeomen preferred the Holland Land Company, which allowed settlers to buy the land as they worked it. 3. Innovation on Eastern Farms 1. Unable to compete against low-priced western grains, eastern farmers adopted the higher yielding and nutritious potato as a cash crop. 1. Farmers whose sons and daughters had moved inland made up for the loss of labor by adopting new implements. 2. Changes in crops and technology kept yields high. 2. Easterners also changed their agriculture methods, including rotating crops and planting year round. 3. Women contributed by producing and selling milk, butter, and cheese. 4. Farmers increased their own standard of living and boosted the entire American economy. C. The Jeffersonian Presidency 1.
You've reached the end of your free preview.
Want to read all 15 pages?