E the consecutive years of depression and deflation

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e. The consecutive years of depression and deflation, following the panic of 1873, lowered workers’ living standards during this decade, spurring labor agitation and protest against the continued downward pressure on wages
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exerted by employers adjusting to a contracting national economy, surplus immigrant unskilled labor, and the continuation of the federal government’s hard money monetary policy. Question 10 a. The protracted internal political upheavals and severe economic strains, resulting from the disintegration of the Chinese Empire in the second half of the nineteenth century, prompted approximately 300,000 Chinese immigrants to come to the United States between 1850 and 1900. b. Landlords in China took advantage of the political instability throughout the Chinese Empire to seize nearly every acre of farmland in the country, preventing millions of Chinese peasants from acquiring any land to cultivate crops and maintain a decent standard of living and consigning Chinese peasants to a lifetime of serfdom on these leased lands. c. During the last half of the nineteenth century, European powers and Japan established economic spheres of influence in China, exploiting its raw materials, commodities, land, and natural resources to advance their economic and political imperialist positions. This imperial development exacerbated the internal political and economic disarray in China and increased the economic hardships suffered by unskilled and skilled Chinese workers residing in the country. d. Correct answer. The Nationalist-Communist Civil War in China occurred from 1927 to 1950 and, thus, had no effect in stimulating Chinese immigration during the second half of the nineteenth century. Chinese immigrant labor was severely curtailed by the Chinese Exclusion Act in 1882, which prohibited all Chinese unskilled and skilled laborers and those employed in the mining industry from legally entering the United States. e. Many Chinese peasants left their homeland in the second half of the nineteenth century because the expropriation of nearly every acre of available arable farmland by a Chinese landlords and the exorbitant land lease terms charged by these landlords placed these Chinese peasants in a status of perpetual serfdom unless they emigrated from the country. Moreover, there was an absence of alternative economic opportunities for unskilled Chinese peasants because of the internally and externally-driven political instability and economic hardships gripping China during this period. Question 11 a. The passage of the Pendleton Act in 1893, prohibiting political contributions from many federal workers, did not prompt Democratic and Republican politicians to seek money from labor unions. During this period, burgeoning labor unions were still struggling to organize and mobilize sufficient numbers of unskilled and skilled workers and overcome the fierce, sometimes violent resistance of employers in order to achieve collective bargaining rights in the United States.
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