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aim to protect ppl’s morals (& stop Protestant ideas from spreading)Charivari: “rough music”; the way peasants showed disapproval of a marriage (think Martin Guerre movie clip)
Politique: People in position of power who put state’s well-being above all else; Catherine de Medici’s choice to tolerate ProtestantsSaint Bartholomew’s Day Massacre (August 23, 1572): Mass slaughter of Huguenots (rumored that Catherine de Medici gave the signal to start); led to the War of the 3 HenriesEdict of Nantes (April 13, 1598): gave Huguenots rights (kinda like the Peace of Augsburg except for France); Henry the IV (of Navarre) rose to the throne(Battle of) Lepanto (1571): Phillip II victorious against the Ottomans; One of Spain’s many religious warsThe “Spanish Armada”: very powerful, until 1588→ lost to English in the English channel (English ships had cannons)Thirty Years War (1618 to 1648 Treaty of Westphalia):Started in Bohemia after Ferdinand II wanted to impose Roman Catholicism on HRE, Sweden intervene, Spain attach Dutch again, France attack Spain to prevent two Habsburg powers on its sidesThe Fronde (1648-1653): French civil wars led by robe nobles (had to pay tax to keep office); Cardinal Richelieu weakened nobles & parlements, so these groups acted out during Queen regent Anne of Austria & Cardinal Mazarin; Monarch wonOliver Cromwell:Signed for Charles I’s death (1649); became Lord Protector of England (1653); after his death, Royalists back in power“Glorious Revolution” of 1688: Parliament invited William of Orange & Mary(Protestants) to replace James II; seems revolutionary bc Bill of Rights (1689)/religious toleranceMercantilism:Limit dependence on foreign and more autonomy; impose high tariffs on importing goods, low tariffs for exportIntendants: manage France’s finances; ie Jean Baptiste ColbertRevocation of the Edict of Nantes (1685): issued by Louis XIV; Protestants lose their religious freedoms (shows France revert back to religious persecution)Induction/Deduction: Descartes=Deduction(top to bottom→ collect data/observation), Bacon=Induction(form theory from observations)Philosophes: public intellectuals of the Enlightenment; emphasis on rationalitySalon:hosted primarily by women in big living room; just to discuss thinkingDeism: (clockmaker theory) God created universe, then stepped back (noninterventionist)After Test Terms
2.ReadingsMalleus Maleficarum - Heinrich Kramer - 1486 - why women are more susceptible to witchcraftOn Christianity - Luther - 1520 - Justification by faith alone (soul separate from body, so doesn’t benefit to adorn physical body); suffering = more Christian, Luther Against the Peasants - Luther - 152512 Articles - Peasants - 1525 -Manifesto on the justifications of a peasant uprising, using arguments from scripture, inspired by LutherThe Prince - Machiavelli - 1532 - political theory/advice to Medici; “invention” of politicsPeace of Augsburg - Charles V & Schmalkdic League - 1555 - recognized rights of Lutherans in HREPredestination - Calvin - 1560 - Abt how God chooses your end fate in Calvinism; it’s your own fault if you’re chosen for damnationOn Civil Govt - Calvin - 1560-