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The fact that gamma rays have the shortest wavelength

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The fact that gamma rays have the shortest wavelength means that they have the highest frequency, which means that of the different types of radiation, they are the most _______________. : Energetic. Gamma rays are the most energetic form of electromagnetic radiation, and are typically released by the more high-energy events that occur in the universe, such as supernovae, neutron stars, solar flares, etc..
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__________ are right below gamma rays on the electromagnetic spectrum, having a slightly longer wavelength. : X-rays. X-rays, like gamma rays, tend to be released from high-energy sources such as remnants of supernovae, neutron stars, etc.. They have even been detected coming from some comets. X-rays are also mostly absorbed by Earth's atmosphere, so they need to be observed from high in the atmosphere or from satellites in space.
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_____________ rays are just below visible light on the electromagnetic spectrum, having a slightly longer wavelength. Explanation: Infrared. Like X-rays and gamma rays, infrared rays are heavily absorbed by the Earth's atmosphere (specifically by water vapor), so they are most effectively observed by telescopes in space. However, there are a few very high and dry locations on Earth where infrared telescopes are effective.
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A couple of reasons astronomers turn to the infrared portion of the spectrum is a) to find planets (stars do not emit as much of their energy in the infrared spectrum, so planets which may be drowned out by a star's light could be seen in infrared) b) very distant galaxies with a high redshift can be more easily visible in infrared An ________________ is a very simple device for detecting the presence of charged particles. Explanation: Electroscope. It operates on the principle that like charges repel. A ___________ _____________ is a more sophisticated instrument that counts radiation levels. : Geiger Counter. It consists of a gas-filled chamber across which an electric field is provided by oppositely charged electrodes on either side. When a high-energy charged particle enters the chamber, it ionizes some of the gas contained therein so that the gas becomes momentarily conducting. This pulse of current flowing through the tube is amplified and recorded on a meter. A __________ chamber, a device for detecting particles of radiation, is a chamber filled with a gas that is saturated with the vapor of water or of some other liquid. Explanation: Cloud. When ionizing radiation particles pass through the air, they leave a visible trail. Cloud chambers show that radiation is not merely a byproduct of modern technology--even if you don't put some kind of radioactive material in the cloud chamber, you will see that there is a constant barrage of particles coming from natural background radiation (i.e. cosmic rays from space).
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Atomic nuclei that are observed to strike the Earth's atmosphere with exceedingly high energies are called ___________ _______.
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