Thus for many individuals the standing of their pay relative to those within

Thus for many individuals the standing of their pay

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large. Thus, for many individuals, the standing of their pay relative to those within their organization, or the standing of their pay relative to others doing similar work for other employers, becomes even more important than the level of pay itself. Thus, for some people, pay is a reflection of self-worth, so pay satisfaction takes on critical significance when it comes to retention.87 The role of pay and benefits is so large that we devote the entire next part of this book to these topics MEASURING AND MONITORING JOB SATISFACTION Most attempts to measure job satisfaction rely on workers’ self-reports. There is a vast amount of data on the reliability and validity of many existing scales as well as a wealth of data from companies that have used these scales, allowing for comparisons across firms. Established scales are excellent places to begin if employers wish to assess the satisfaction levels of their employees. An employer would be foolish to “reinvent the wheel” by generating its own versions of measures of these broad constructs. Of course, in some cases, organizations want to measure their employees’ satisfaction with aspects of their work that are specific to that organization (such as satisfaction with one particular health plan versus another). In these situations the organization may need to create its own scales, but this will be the exception rather than the rule. One standardized, widely used measure of job satisfaction is the Job Descriptive Index (JDI). The JDI emphasizes various facets of satisfaction: pay, the work itself, supervision, co-workers, and promotions. Table 10.5 presents several items from the JDI scale. Other scales exist for those who want to get even more specific about different facets of satisfaction. For example, although the JDI assesses satisfaction with pay, it does not break up pay into different dimensions.91 The Pay Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) focuses on these more specific dimensions (pay levels, benefits, pay structure, and pay raises); thus, this measure gives a more detailed view of exactly what aspects of pay are most or least satisfying. SURVEY FEEDBACK INTERVENTIONS
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Regardless of what measures are used or how many facets of satisfaction are assessed, a systematic, ongoing program of employee survey research should be a prominent part of any HRM strategy for a number of reasons. First, it allows the company to monitor trends over time and thus prevent problems in the area of voluntary turnover before they happen. Managing Involuntary Turnover Discharging employees can be a difficult task that needs to be handled with the utmost care and attention to detail. First, legal aspects of this decision can have important repercussions for the organization. Historically, in the absence of a specified contract, either the employer or the employee could sever the employment relationship at any time. The severing of this relationship could be for “good cause,” “no cause,” or even “bad cause.” Over time, this policy has been referred to as the employment-at-will doctrine. This employment-at-will Page 428doctrine has eroded significantly over
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