The factors that affect runoff also affect sediment

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The factors that affect runoff also affect sediment erosion, transport, and deposition - The amount of surface-water runoff and sediment carried by the runoff varies significantly among drainage basins and rivers o Factors that affect variation Geologic Rock and soil type, mineralogy, degree of weathering, and structural characteristics of the soil and rock Fine-grained, dense clay soils and exposed rock types allow little water to move downward and become part of the subsurface flow
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Sandy soils and well-fractured rocks absorb more precipitation and have less surface runoff and fewer streams Topographic Relief and slope are important because they affect the velocity of water in a stream, the rate at which water infiltrates the soil or rock, and the rate of overland flow Climatic The type of precipitation that occurs, the intensity of the precipitation, the duration of precipitation, and the types of storms Vegetation Can effect runoff ,sediment yield, and stream flow Land-use Factors Agriculture generally increases runoff and sediment yield as land is plowed for crops Urbanization greatly increases runoff because of the large amount of impervious pavement - Two m ajor zones of groundwater are th e vados e zone a nd th e zone of s aturation o The vados e zone is a n e arly warning are a for potential pollution to groundwater resources o
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