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On the basis of these and other ideas, Frank was able to reduce the motions involved inbricklaying from 18 ½ to 4. Using his approach, workers increased the number of brickslaid per day from 1000 to 2700 with no increase in physical exertion.Frank married Lillian Moller, who began working with him on projects while she completedher doctorate in psychology. The two continued their studies aimed at eliminatingunnecessary motions and expanded their interests to exploring ways of reducing taskfatigue. Part of their work involved the isolation of 17 basic motions, each called atherblig ("Gilbreth" spelled backward, with the "t" and "h" reversed). Therbligs includedsuch motions as select, position, and hold - motions that were used to study tasks in anumber of industries. The Gilbreths used the therblig concept to study tasks in a numberof industries. The Gilbreths used the therblig concept to study jobs and also pioneeredthe use of motion picture technology in studying jobs.Lillian's doctoral thesis was published as a book, The Psychology of Management, makingit one of the early works applying the findings of psychology to the workplace. At theinsistence of the publisher, the author was lilted as L.M. Gilbreth to disguise the fact thatthe book was written by a woman.Lillian helped define scientific management by arguing that scientific studies ofmanagement must focus on both analysis and synthesis. With analysis, a task is brokendown into its essential parts or elements. With synthesis, the task is reconstituted toinclude only those elements necessary for efficient work. She also had a particularinterest in the human implications of scientific management, arguing that the purpose ofscientific management is to help people reach their maximum potential by developingtheir skills and abilities. Lillian Gilbreth ranks as the first woman to gain prominence as amajor contributor to the development of management as a science.Henry L Gantt (1861-1919):One of Taylor's closest associates, Henry Gantt latterbecome an independent consultant and made several contributions of his own. The mostwell-known is the Gantt Chart, a graphic aid to planning, scheduling and control that isstill in use today. He also devised a unique pay incentive system that not only paidworkers extra for reaching standard in the allotted time but also awarded bonuses tosupervisors when workers reached standard. He wanted to encourage supervisors tocoach workers who were having difficulties.
176Principles of Management andOrganisational BehaviourThe scientific managers like Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilberth and Henry Gantt were notthe first or only group that recognized the importance of the operating functions. Ahundred years earlier, Adam Smith had carefully pointed out the advantages of divisionof labour and in 1832, Charles Babbage, a British mathematician with some astoundingmanagerial insights, discussed transference of skill in his book Economy of Machineryand Manufacture.