On the basis of these and other ideas Frank was able to reduce the motions

On the basis of these and other ideas frank was able

This preview shows page 169 - 171 out of 329 pages.

On the basis of these and other ideas, Frank was able to reduce the motions involved in bricklaying from 18 ½ to 4. Using his approach, workers increased the number of bricks laid per day from 1000 to 2700 with no increase in physical exertion. Frank married Lillian Moller, who began working with him on projects while she completed her doctorate in psychology. The two continued their studies aimed at eliminating unnecessary motions and expanded their interests to exploring ways of reducing task fatigue. Part of their work involved the isolation of 17 basic motions, each called a therblig ("Gilbreth" spelled backward, with the "t" and "h" reversed). Therbligs included such motions as select, position, and hold - motions that were used to study tasks in a number of industries. The Gilbreths used the therblig concept to study tasks in a number of industries. The Gilbreths used the therblig concept to study jobs and also pioneered the use of motion picture technology in studying jobs. Lillian's doctoral thesis was published as a book, The Psychology of Management, making it one of the early works applying the findings of psychology to the workplace. At the insistence of the publisher, the author was lilted as L.M. Gilbreth to disguise the fact that the book was written by a woman. Lillian helped define scientific management by arguing that scientific studies of management must focus on both analysis and synthesis. With analysis, a task is broken down into its essential parts or elements. With synthesis, the task is reconstituted to include only those elements necessary for efficient work. She also had a particular interest in the human implications of scientific management, arguing that the purpose of scientific management is to help people reach their maximum potential by developing their skills and abilities. Lillian Gilbreth ranks as the first woman to gain prominence as a major contributor to the development of management as a science. Henry L Gantt (1861-1919): One of Taylor's closest associates, Henry Gantt latter become an independent consultant and made several contributions of his own. The most well-known is the Gantt Chart, a graphic aid to planning, scheduling and control that is still in use today. He also devised a unique pay incentive system that not only paid workers extra for reaching standard in the allotted time but also awarded bonuses to supervisors when workers reached standard. He wanted to encourage supervisors to coach workers who were having difficulties.
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176 Principles of Management and Organisational Behaviour The scientific managers like Taylor, Frank and Lillian Gilberth and Henry Gantt were not the first or only group that recognized the importance of the operating functions. A hundred years earlier, Adam Smith had carefully pointed out the advantages of division of labour and in 1832, Charles Babbage, a British mathematician with some astounding managerial insights, discussed transference of skill in his book Economy of Machinery and Manufacture.
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