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# Land breeze at night radiation cooling over land

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Land breeze: at night, radiation cooling over land creates a reversal of the thermally-driven winds, developing a land breeze. 17. How do valley breezes differ from mountain breezes? Valley breezes move upwards, making the air expand and rise. Mountain breezes are air being cooled valleyward, down the hill slopes. 18. Describe how katabatic (drainage) winds can generate both warm and cold conditions. Give an example of a cold and warm katabatic wind. Warm: Chinook or Foehn Cold: Bora, Mistral, Oroshi 19. Coriolis force is an applied force that influences wind speed and direction due to the Earth’s rotation. (True / False ) only affects direction 20. In the Northern Hemisphere, Coriolis force deflects the wind to the right while in the Southern Hemisphere, Coriolis force deflects the wind to the left . 21. What two factors can influence the magnitude of Coriolis force? Briefly explain each. Coriolis force increases with the speed of motion but decreases with latitude.

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22. Centrifugal force influences the wind only when isobars are curved. ( True / False) 23. Centrifugal force always points into the center of rotation. (True / False ) points outward 24. How does friction influence the wind? In what direction does it point? Why is this force only applicable in the lower portions of the atmosphere? Friction is always directed opposite to the wind. Friction slows down the wind, due to interactions with the surface. Friction is affected by the surface, which has less affect as you go higher in the atmosphere. 25. The geostrophic wind and gradient wind are created when forces balance in the upper levels of the atmosphere. (True / False ) 26. Which two forces balance to create the geostrophic wind? Pressure Gradient force and the Coriolis Force 27. What are two major assumptions about the geostrophic wind? 28. How does the wind flow differently around cyclones compared to anticyclones in the Northern Hemisphere? Anticyclone: circulation is clockwise around a high-pressure center Cyclone: circulation is counterclockwise around a low-pressure center. 29. Describe the orientation of forces around cyclones and anticyclones in the Northern Hemisphere (draw a diagram if that is easier). Page 169 30. The gradient wind around high pressure in the Northern Hemisphere is supergeostrophic because it is faster than geostrophic flow. ( True / False) page 171 31. At the surface, winds cross the isobars at ~45° angles. Briefly describe why/how this happens. Draw a diagram if that easier.
GE101 – Natural Environment: The Atmosphere Study Guide Worksheet Lecture 8 – The Upper Troposphere and the Jet Stream Complete the following worksheet using the Lecture 7 slides and 156-176 in the textbook. 1. _______ geopotential height _____________ uses pressure as a vertical height component. It is measured in meters, kilometers and decameters. 2. How does thickness relate to geopotential height (i.e. what is thickness)?

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• Fall '12
• Fusco
• Precipitation, jet stream, True / False, Study Guide Worksheet

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