(Woman, thirties, Brittany, educator) This process of self-awareness leads to the emergence of new individual behavior patterns. Many respondents ( n = 26) had partly or more extensively changed their gardening practices in order to make their gardens more hospitable to butterflies or biodiversity in general. Some planted particular species (aromatic plants, Buddleia , etc.) or deliberately allowed adventitious plants to grow (nettles, valerian, brambles). Some changed their garden treatments or lawn-mowing habits (e.g., quotes 8 and 9). Quote 8 Butterflies have made me plant more aromatic plants in the garden because, well... we already had some, but so that I could watch the butterflies, I decided to add some more, and that changed the garden’s structure too. (Man, forties, Brittany, married, children, town and country planning) Quote 9 I count butterflies. It’s a bit like trophy hunting, so the less insecticide I use, the more chances I have of seeing butterflies. (Woman, thirties, Ile-de-France, married, children, teacher) These cognitive processes do not reveal the nature of the values and representations that underlie people’s relationships with butterflies and ecosystems. Some of these relationships can be aesthetic (aspect of butterflies or the garden), others may be connected to the individual satisfaction in gaining knowledge. However, the consequences with regard to self- awareness involve a set of values that extend beyond the individual to include cultural values. Consequences of Participation in the Garden Butterflies Watch on Social Relationships As well as individual consequences, participation in the program takes place within the broader framework of social networks. Indeed, butterfly watching in a familiar context thus takes place within a social process. This network helps to disseminate ideas about biodiversity through a combination of established and empirical knowledge that results from interpretations of individual experiences. The connection between individual learning and social interaction is reinforced by people’s desire to share experiences and by the integration of these new ideas and knowledge into the different social relationships that revolve around their environment. First, participation in the Garden Butterflies Watch may be embedded in the social dissemination of naturalist knowledge, through nature guides ( n = 15, e.g., quote 10).
Ecology and Society 17 (4): 2 Quote 10 I am a naturalist, but as an amateur. I don’t have much time to attend a course of lectures... so I usually take my books with me and learn in the field. I have bird identification books (...) and now of course I have butterfly identification books. (Man, forties, Brittany, married, children, municipal employee) Thus, although most respondents recognized their lack of qualifications as naturalists at the beginning of their involvement, many of them went on to gain empirical knowledge on observable biodiversity, supported by a combination of two different types of learning: (1) the
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