Box 12 2 Individuals at High Risk for Respiratory Infection Older than 65 years

Box 12 2 individuals at high risk for respiratory

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Box 12-2: Individuals at High Risk for Respiratory Infection Older than 65 years of age Cigarette smoking Residing in extended care facilities Chronic respiratory disorders Congenital or chronic cardiovascular disorders Chronic renal disease Diabetes mellitus or a chronic metabolic disorder Compromised immune response Older adults should not be exposed to children with colds and coughs. If an older adult is confined to the house or a long term care facility, he/she will not have the immunity to common viruses and bacteria that younger, active people do
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Preventing Respiratory Disorders Hand hygiene Stay out of crowds especially during cold and flu season Refrain from smoking Avoid known allergens Adequate nutrition Sufficient rest Avoid irritating substances Tobacco smoke, industrial gases, coal dust, particulates from agriculture activities, soot and other carbons, car KNOW THESE TESTS ABGs Pulmonary Function Test Bronchoscopy O2 Sat Chest X-Ray Victor Cube Scan Thorosentesis
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Physical Assessment Enlarged lymph nodes Cough and sputum table 12-2 Thick, tenacious, and “ropey” sign of chronic bronchitis Respirations, posture, and use of accessory respiratory muscles Wheezes, rhonchi, crackles, and pleural friction rub Extreme restlessness and agitation may signal O2 deficit Respirations : 12-20, but up to 24 in elderly Tachypnea : fast breathing Bradypnea : slow breathing
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Adventitious lung sounds Wheezes : whistling, musical, high pitched sound (air being forced through a narrow airway) Rhonchi (low wheeze) : coarse, low-pitched, rattling, snoring (secretions in airway) Crackles : like rubbing hairs between fingers close to ear (end of inspiration or end of expirations) Fine: high pitched, found in pts with atelectasis, pneum Coarse: louder and low in pitch in pts with bronchitis Stridor : “croaking” sounds d/t partial obstruction in upper airways Heard in children with croup Pleural friction rub : grating, scratchy sound similar to creaking shoe leather or opening squeaky door. (sounds scratchy) ***See table 12-3 for “normal” lung sounds***
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Pulmonary Function Tests Total lung capacity (TLC ): amount of gas the lung can hold at end of a maximal inspiration Vital capacity (VC) : volume of gas that a person can exhale after inhaling as much air as possible (maximal inspiration)
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  • Fall '19
  • cough, Upper Respiratory, of Respiratory Disorders

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