3 Causal Research Designs When it is necessary to show that one variable causes

3 causal research designs when it is necessary to

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3) Causal Research Designs: When it is necessary to show that one variable causes or determines the values of other variables, a causal research approach must be used. Evidence of a relationship or an association among the variables is useful; otherwise, we would have no basis for even inferring that causality might be present. 1.2.Marketing Research Designs
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D) Validity and Reliability in Research Study: 1) Research Validity: This problem with data gathering represents several concepts that to the non- researcher may be quite complex. But basically validity boils down to whether the research is really measuring what it claims to be measuring. 2 ) Research Reliability: Reliability is chiefly concerned with making sure the method of data gathering leads to consistent results. For some types of research this can be measured by having different researchers follow the same methods to see if results can be duplicated. If results are similar then it is likely the method of data gathering is reliable. 1.2.Marketing Research Designs Research Validity
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The first step in research is formulating a research problem. It is most important stage in applied research as poorly defined problems will not yield useful results. It is rightly said that "a problem well-defined is half-solved". Poorly defined problems cause confusion and do not allow the researcher to develop a good research design. A) problem definition: A complete problem definition must specify each of the following: 1.3. Formulation of Problem Unit of Analysis Time and Space Boundaries Characteristics of Interest Environmental Conditions Hypothesis Development
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A) problem definition: 1) Unit of Analysis: The individuals or objects whose characteristics arc to be measured arc called the units of analysis. The units always identify the objects to be studied. It is necessary that the universe is well defined. Consider, for example the statement-"Women’s dress buyers in Delhi stores on January 30 1990". 2) Time and Space Boundaries: As regards time and space boundaries we find that the two universes are again different. In the first instance a precise date viz. 30th January, 1990 is given while in the second instance the entire month of January is given. 3) Characteristics of Interest: This aspect identifies the focus of the problem. In our earlier example the characteristics of interest can be style and color preferences, buying behaviour personality traits, etc. Again the researcher may be interested in only one characteristic. 1.3. Formulation of Problem
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A) problem definition: 4) Environmental Conditions: This aspect indicates the uniqueness or generality of the problem. For example if the management is interested in knowing how the units respond to price changes, then the problem definition should specify the prices to be researched. 5) Hypothesis Development: Before passing on to the next stage it is worthwhile to briefly mention the development of hypotheses. A hypothesis is a proposition which the researcher wants to verify. Often there may be several competing hypotheses, either specified or implied.
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