Psychology Lessons 7-11.docx

Lead to broadbents filter model of attention filter

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Lead to Broadbent’s “filter model of attention”. Filter Model of Attention: attention is filtered on incoming sensory information; only sensory signals that pass through the filter go on to be further processed. Another attentional task is a visual search for a target; can be parallel search (all items examined at the same time) or serial search (items examined one at a time). If search is serial, response time increases with increase in the number of distractions. If search is parallel, response time same if increase in number of distractions. Conjunction Search Singleton: Parallel Feature-Integration Theory of Attention: simple features are proposed quickly and sorted into features; if combinations of features must be examined, then extra cognition and attention is required, slowing the process. Attention is required for object perception. Single Detection Theory: the perception of a stimulus is dependent upon both the judgment of the subject as well as the sensory experience. Says we will ignore faint sensory events if we expect to not find anything. Response Bias : a person’s tendency to say “yes” or “no” when unsure whether he or she detected the stimulus. Satisfaction-of-Search: the finding of one stimulus interferes with the finding of subsequent stimuli. (RSVP) Rapid Serial Visual Presentation: technique of displaying information rapidly and sequentially for identification of a target object. Shows that when attention is used to process a stimulus, we are blind to any other stimulus appearing immediately after. Change Blindness failure to detect a change when vision is interrupted by a saccade (rapid eye movement) or an artificially produced obstruction. Ex. Guy asking for directions changes behind door. Intentional Blindness failure to perceive an event when attention is diverted elsewhere. Ex. Moonwalking bear.
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Functional Neuroimaging: type of brain scan showing the areas of the brain that are active when subjects perform certain tasks. Bistable Stimuli: ambiguous stimuli with more than one possible interpretation can study how a stimulus is interpreted instead of ability to correctly identify. LESSON #8 Sensation: process by which our sensory systems gather information about the environment. Perception: the selection, organization, and interpretation of sensations as meaningful objects and events. Ex. The sensation of light pressure on skin is perceived as a gentle, loving touch. Transduction: conversion of physical energy into electrical potentials – happens in sensory receptor cells, which are specialized neurons. Receptors vary response to stimuli that differs qualitatively and quantitatively. Vision: sensing with the eyes; perception of objects in three dimensions, at a variety of distances, and with a multitude of colors and textures. Seeing is sensing light and its reflection off surfaces. Audition: seeing with the ears; hearing. Hearing is sensing vibrations in the air. Gustation: sensing with taste buds; tasting.
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