The results in and 13 give an indication of the order

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The results in Tables 11 , 12 and 13 give an indication of the order of magnitude of the impact reduction needed for clothing consumption in Sweden, USA and China, in a society that respects the planetary boundaries. Speci fi cally, the results indicate that considerable environmental impact reduction is necessary until 2050 for most types of environmental impacts. The necessary reductions span from eliminating all or nearly all impact (in impact categories such as climate change, fossil resource depletion, land transformation, biodiversity loss and eutrophication, for certain ethical principles and data assumptions applied), to even allowing some increase of impact (freshwater consumption and eutrophication, for certain ethical principles and data assumptions applied). As such, it gives some idea of what the Swedish, US and Chinese clothing sectors need to achieve to become sustainable. This can be a basis for setting sustainability targets in fi rms and sectors, in particular 26 S. Roos et al.
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Table 11 Impact-reduction targets for the clothing consumption in Sweden, applying the procedure outlined in Sandin et al. ( 2015 ) Impact-reduction target per garment use [%] Ethical principle (step 4) Principle 1: individual rights Principle 2: historical right of sectors Principle 3: historical right of individuals of populations Principle 4: historical debt of individuals of populations Global population in 2050 (step 4) Low estimate High estimate Independent of global population Low estimate High estimate Low estimate High estimate PB Related impact categories Approach (step 3) Climate change Climate change, non-renewable energy use A C 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Interferences with the nitrogen cycle Eutrophication, marine eutrophication, terrestrial eutrophication, terrestrial acidi fi cation A 72.3 87.0 77.6 88.3 66.2 71.5 77 81.7 96.0 85.2 96.7 B 86.1 93.5 89.2 94.5 83.1 85.8 88.5 90.9 98.0 92.6 98.4 C 44.5 73.9 55.3 79.0 34.2 43.1 54.1 63.4 91.9 70.5 93.5 Interferences with the phosphorus cycle Eutrophication, freshwater eutrophication A 82.1 85.6 64.7 69.4 75.4 92.9 94.3 B 91.1 92.8 82.3 84.7 87.7 96.5 97.1 C 64.2 71.1 32.5 38.9 54.1 85.8 88.6 Freshwater use Freshwater consumption A - 35.8 - 9.48 - 26.8 - 6.95 13.8 - 16.8 5.85 B 32.2 45.3 36.6 46.5 55.9 41.6 52.9 C - 172 - 119 - 154 - 114 - 72.5 134 - 88.3 Land system change Land transformation A C 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 Change in biosphere integrity Land occupation, land transformation, biodiversity loss A 99.7 99.8 99.2 99.3 99.4 99.9 99.9 B 99.9 99.9 99.6 99.7 99.7 100 100 C 99.4 99.5 98.4 98.6 98.9 99.8 99.9 Targets are given per planetary boundary for the different approaches of step 3 of the procedure (A, B and C) and the different population developments and ethical principles of step 4. For the impact categories related to the PB of interferences with the nitrogen cycle, a range is given for ethical principles 1 and 4, spanned by the low and high estimates of the ratio of global to Swedish per capita impact of Sandin et al. ( 2015 ) [principles 2 and 3 are not in fl uenced by this ratio (see Eqs. 3 and 4 in Sandin et al. ( 2015 ))]. A negative value implies that the impact is allowed to increase Will Clothing Be Sustainable? Clarifying Sustainable Fashion 27
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Table 12 Impact-reduction targets for the clothing consumption in the USA, applying the procedure outlined in Sandin et al. ( 2015 )
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  • Fall '19
  • Sustainable fashion, Sandra Roos

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